Unit 9: Globalization
9.0: Intro to Globalization
Welcome to Unit 9, the final unit of AP world history 🎉! This unit covers the time period 1900—present, just like our last two units; unit 7 covered mainly wars in this time period, while unit 8 covered topics related to decolonization and proxy wars, like the Cold War. This unit is going to focus on ✨ Globalization ✨ and why our world is the way that it is!
This unit is worth about 8-10% of your multiple choice section, and it will probably be one part of SAQ #4, on a normal paper and pencil exam, along with units 7-8.
On AP Classroom, your teacher can unlock for you:
A stimulus-based multiple choice practice Set with ~25 questions
A free response practice set with 1 LEQ
Another free response practice set with 2 SAQs
Let’s look at some of the important events in Freemanpedia’s awesome timeline of the whole period 1900-present.
Image Courtesy of Freemanpedia.
A Note About “Modern History”
Since this is chronologically the last unit in APWH, a lot of the topics discussed in this unit might have happened during your lifetime or at least during your parents’ lifetimes. While keeping that in mind, we have to note that a lot of the topics that could be discussed in this unit are not fully “history” yet. Generally, any writings about the 21st century (especially secondary sources) are journalism (always written with human bias to further a purpose) and not historical pieces of writing—yet.
We’ve talked about this whole class through the historical thinking lenses of Causation, Comparison, and CCOT (Continuity and Change Over Time). We are still able to do that in this unit, but if you think about it, we are still living through the effects of things like 9/11, the War on Drugs, the War on Terror, and many more events that we will discuss in this unit. Due to that, it’s going to be hard for us to look into the future (unless you’re a super human 🤖) to determine the effects, continuity + change, or comparison of everything that’s happened from 1900 to the present.
Good thing we’ve already learned what’s happened in the past to still use those lenses!
Wait . . . What is Globalization?
Globalization is the spread of economic, social, political, culture, and environmental ideas around the globe, usually aided by new technology. We have seen globalization all throughout AP World already through the environmental globalization of the Columbian Exchange, the cultural globalization of universalizing religions, and more recently with the forced economic/political globalization of capitalism/democracy by the USA during the Cold War Period.
This unit focuses on this idea of globalization with all 6 big ideas that we’ve used in this class (sometimes in the acronym of SPICE-T): Social, Political, Human-Environment Interaction, Cultural, Economic, and Technology.
After you finish this objective, you will be able to “explain how the development of new technologies changed the world from 1900 to present” (Courtesy of the College Board AP World History Modern 2020 CED). Make sure to keep that prompt in mind as you read this guide!
Some sections of this guide will focus more on new technologies versus environmental effects or economic systems, so try to keep these prompts in the back of your mind with the SPICE-T acronym above.
Main Events of Unit 9
1918-1919: Spanish Flu infects one-fifth of the world’s population. Deadlier than the Bubonic plague
1928: Alexander Fleming invented penicillin—antibiotics are born
1948: United Nations adopts the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
1950s: Green Revolution begins worldwide
1950s: Artificial birth control
1971: Greenpeace founded to protect the environment
1977: Green Belt Movement begins to combat deforestation
1995: World Trade Organization (WTO) formed
1997: Kyoto Protocol first agreement to reduce carbon emissions worldwide
2001: One day terrorist attacks on New York and Washington, D.C. by airplanes
2010s: “Arab Spring” revolutions overthrow dictators in North African countries