✨ ap world survival packs are ready!
📑 Document Based Questions (DBQ)
🚀 Thematic Guides
Theme 1 (ENV) - Humans and the Environment
Theme 2 (CDI) - Cultural Developments and Interactions
Theme 3 (GOV) - Governance
Theme 4 (ECON) - Economic Systems
Theme 5 (SOC) - Social Interactions and Organizations
Theme 6 (TECH) - Technology and Innovation
🗺 Regional Guides
The Pacific from 1200 to the Present
🐎 Unit 1: The Global Tapestry
1.0Overview of Unit 1: The Global Tapestry
1.1East Asia from 1200-1450
1.2Dar al-Islam from 1200-1450
1.4The Americas from 1200 to 1450
1.6Europe from 1200 to 1450
🐫 Unit 2: Networks of Exchange
2.0Overview of Unit 2: Networks of Exchange
2.3Indian Ocean Trade Routes
2.4Trans-Saharan Trade Routes
2.5Cultural Effects of Trade
2.6Environmental Effects of Trade
🕌 Unit 3: Land-Based Empires
3.0Overview of Unit 3: Land-Based Empires
3.1Expansion of Land-Based Empires
3.2Governments of Land-Based Empires
🍕 Unit 4: Transoceanic Interconnections
4.0Overview of Unit 4: Transoceanic Interconnections
4.1New Technologies from 1450-1750
4.4Maritime Empires Established
4.5Expansion of Maritime Empires
4.6Resistance to European Expansion
✊ Unit 5: Revolutions
5.2Revolutions from 1750-1900
5.5Technology in the Industrial Age
5.7Economic Effects of Industrialization
🚂 Unit 6: Consequences of Industrialization
6.0Overview of Unit 6: Consequences of Industrialization
💣 Unit 7: Global Conflict
7.0Overview of Unit 7: Global Conflict
7.6Causes of World War II
🥶 Unit 8: Cold War & Decolonization
8.0Overview of Unit 8: Cold War & Decolonization
8.2The Cold War
8.3Effects of the Cold War
8.4Spread of Communism After 1900
8.5Decolonization After 1900
8.6Newly Independent States After 1900
8.8End of the Cold War
✈️ Unit 9: Globalization
🤓 Historical Thinking Skills
Comparison in the AP Histories
Continuity and Change Over Time in the AP Histories
Causation in the AP Histories
👉 Introduction to AP World
⏱️ 3 min read
October 20, 2020
South Asia is the region below the Hindu Kush mountains and Himalayas. This region, dominated by the modern-state of India, claims one of the world’s oldest faiths and a tradition of regional trade.
🎥Watch: WHAP - Continuities in South Asia Post 1200-CE
Post-Classical South Asia
|Social||The Hindu caste system created a hierarchy of power that was both religious and inherited. Hindus, born into a caste, typically had to remain in that caste until their death and hopeful reincarnation. This promoted stability, though it also allowed for the stagnation that emerges when there is no competition for power. Generally, a woman within the Hindu caste system had more in common with men of her caste than women in other castes. As Islam spread to the region, social roles became more gendered.|
|Political||Since the fall of the Mauryan and Gupta Empires, South Asia has broken into various kingdoms. Various Hindu Rajput Kingdoms emerged in northern India, keeping a centralized power from emerging for hundreds of years. They competed with each other, allowing for Islamic armies to start to expand into Afghanistan and Pakistan. The Delhi Sultanate emerged from this expansion as a powerful kingdom for nearly 300 years. United by Islam and funded by the Silk Road, the Delhi Sultans were able to hold back the Mongol expansion into South Asia.|
|Cultural||Though still predominantly Hindu, South Asia’s development was largely impacted by Buddhism and Islam. Hinduism is a polytheistic faith that is probably best known because of its belief in samsara, or reincarnation. The vast majority of Indians are Hindu. However, unlike many polytheistic faiths, Hinduism is very decentralized. Islam, spreading from the Middle East, is a monotheistic faith that is more cohesive since it blended political leadership with religion. By 1450, Islam has spread to northern India and helped the Delhi Sultanate create a stable regional empire. South Asia has seen many world religions because of positioning on both land and water-based trade routes.|
Southeast Asia consists of modern nations like Vietnam, Thailand, and Cambodia. This region has developed within a mountainous and jungle environment, making a large empire impossible. The people of Southeast Asia have been heavily influenced by China to the north and the trade with the west within the Indian Ocean Trade Network.
Image Courtesy of Wikimedia
Before the modern-states of Southeast Asia, there were various empires, both land-based and sea-based, that helped unite the people politically, economically, and religiously.
The Khmer Empire was a powerful state in Southeast Asia, formed by people of the same name, lasting from 802 CE to 1431 CE. At its peak, the land-based empire covered much of what today is Cambodia, Thailand, Laos, and southern Vietnam. Its capital, Angkor Wat, was originally a Hindu temple, developed over time into a vast Buddhist temple.
The Srivijaya Empire was a Indonesian Hindu empire based on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, which influenced much of Southeast Asia. Srivijaya was an important center for trade between China and India as well as for the expansion of Buddhism from the 8th to the 12th century.
The Majapahit Kingdom was a smaller Javan Buddhist kingdom that controlled the shipping lane leading to and from the Strait of Malacca.
Southeast Asia benefited economically from the Indian Ocean Trade Network, while it also became very diverse. Islamic merchants and Sufi (mystical sect of Sunni Muslims) missionaries brought their faith to Indonesia, making it the most populated Islamic nation in the world today. This trade network and the missionaries traveling with it is one of the most important factors in the spread of Islam in Southeast Asia.
🎥Watch: WHAP - Southeast Asia in the Global Middle Ages
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