Before 1492, the Americas were isolated from Africa, Europe, and Asia. This is why the ancient civilizations are so fascinating because they all developed similar structures without knowing about each other.
Columbus was an all around terrible human being that committed mass genocide, but he gets the namesake of this era because his voyage kicked off a new global trading system.
Flow of Trade
The connection of the Old World (Afro-Eurasia) and the New World (the Americas) unlocked a massive flow of goods, people, ideas, and disease. New crops and livestock changed eating habits and largely increased the global population. However, the Americas suffered massive depopulation because of the spread of disease.
Atlantic Slave Trade
The Atlantic Slave Trade began immediately after the Portuguese arrived in Africa, but seriously expanded after Native American populations were decimated. Cash crops were profitable, but required a lot of labor.
Indigenous communities were originally enslaved, but they were not a viable long term plan for free/cheap labor.
Disease wiped out most of the population and many that were left were able to escape because of superior knowledge of the land.
The Atlantic Slave Trade was expanded to supply labor throughout the colonies. Africans were kidnapped, often with the help of local rulers, and brought to the New World. The most common destination for slaves was Brazil because sugar was so harsh to cultivate that the lifespan of slaves was extremely short (5-10% of slaves died every year). On the backs of millions of slaves, sugar eventually outpaced silver as the most profitable good at the time.
Where Slaves Went
|Portuguese (mostly Brazil)||39%|
|British West Indies (Caribbean)||18%|
|Spanish (Latin America)||18%|
|French (North America)||14%|
|British Mainland (US)||6%|
|Dutch West Indies (Caribbean)||2%|
The African diaspora changed the culture of the Americas as slaves brought new ideas, foods, and languages.
With over 1500 different dialects, most slaves did not share a common language, which meant that native tongues were lost over time. New languages developed as a blend of different dialects, such as Creole.
Music was a key factor for survival in many slave communities. This music would later influence many genres including gospel, blues, jazz, reggae, rock n roll, hip hop, and samba
The Columbian Exchange also had an enormous effect on the environment. As colonists expanded plantations, many regions suffered from deforestation, soil depletion, and a strain on water sources.