✨ ap world survival packs are ready!
📑 Document Based Questions (DBQ)
🚀 Thematic Guides
Theme 1 (ENV) - Humans and the Environment
Theme 2 (CDI) - Cultural Developments and Interactions
Theme 3 (GOV) - Governance
Theme 4 (ECON) - Economic Systems
Theme 5 (SOC) - Social Interactions and Organizations
Theme 6 (TECH) - Technology and Innovation
🗺 Regional Guides
The Pacific from 1200 to the Present
🐎 Unit 1: The Global Tapestry
1.0Overview of Unit 1: The Global Tapestry
1.1East Asia from 1200-1450
1.2Dar al-Islam from 1200-1450
1.4The Americas from 1200 to 1450
1.6Europe from 1200 to 1450
🐫 Unit 2: Networks of Exchange
2.0Overview of Unit 2: Networks of Exchange
2.3Indian Ocean Trade Routes
2.4Trans-Saharan Trade Routes
2.5Cultural Effects of Trade
2.6Environmental Effects of Trade
🕌 Unit 3: Land-Based Empires
3.0Overview of Unit 3: Land-Based Empires
3.1Expansion of Land-Based Empires
3.2Governments of Land-Based Empires
🍕 Unit 4: Transoceanic Interconnections
4.0Overview of Unit 4: Transoceanic Interconnections
4.1New Technologies from 1450-1750
4.4Maritime Empires Established
4.5Expansion of Maritime Empires
4.6Resistance to European Expansion
✊ Unit 5: Revolutions
5.2Revolutions from 1750-1900
5.5Technology in the Industrial Age
5.7Economic Effects of Industrialization
🚂 Unit 6: Consequences of Industrialization
6.0Overview of Unit 6: Consequences of Industrialization
💣 Unit 7: Global Conflict
7.0Overview of Unit 7: Global Conflict
7.6Causes of World War II
🥶 Unit 8: Cold War & Decolonization
8.0Overview of Unit 8: Cold War & Decolonization
8.2The Cold War
8.3Effects of the Cold War
8.4Spread of Communism After 1900
8.5Decolonization After 1900
8.6Newly Independent States After 1900
8.8End of the Cold War
✈️ Unit 9: Globalization
🤓 Historical Thinking Skills
Causation in the AP Histories
Continuity and Change Over Time in the AP Histories
Comparison in the AP Histories
👉 Introduction to AP World
⏱️ 3 min read
June 24, 2020
Decolonization is, in my opinion, one of the most fun parts of AP World. Basically, it’s the undoing of colonialism/imperialism-- colonies are starting to declare independence and start their own nations. So let’s get to it!
After WWI, when the first sparks of nationalism began to appear in India, Britain promised the colony independence-- but didn’t give it. After WWII, the Indians were over it.
The Indian National Congress, or INC, was the leading political party at the time and pushed hard for independence. It was led by Mohandas or Mahatma Gandhi, but we’ll get back to him in 8.7.
The INC, and specifically Gandhi, started to lead a ton of non-violence movements, which made Britain look like the bad guys when they stopped the protests (often with violence). In 1947, India gained independence. It would partition with Pakistan later… but that’s for 8.6.
This independence movement against Britain (surprise, surprise), was led by Kwame Nkrumah, a leading Ghanaian nationalist who was Western-educated. His tactics were sort of similar to Gandhi’s, leading the charge as Ghanaians refused to cooperate with British authorities and boycotting British goods.
Eventually, a party pushing for independence was formed (the Convention People’s Party), and Ghana declared independence in 1957, largely peacefully.
After WWII, Kenya began agitating for independence like India and Ghana, but a little more violently. This is exemplified by the Mau Mau movement, which wounded and killed thousands (some Kenyans). However, the end result was the same: Kenya became a nation in 1963.
Okay, reality check: Canada is still very similar to what it was 100 years ago today. But there was a little blip: the Quebecois separatist movement. This Quebecois, or French nationalists, believed Quebec should be independent, or at least significantly different, from Canada. They blamed much of their bad conditions on British Canadians.
Now, did they succeed? Just look at a map (Spoiler alert: they did not).
Okay, we’ve covered Vietnam a lot, but here I want to focus on one guy: Ho Chi Minh. This guy is huge in Vietnamese history-- not only did he help found the Indochinese Communist Party and bring it to power, but he helped transform that party into a nationalist party as well.
However, Ho Chi Minh stopped at nothing to achieve his goals-- in order to achieve independence, there was quite a bit of violence and war to get what he wanted, including the killing of civilians.
This area that eventually broke into a plethora of West African nations such as Senegal and Niger was ruled harshly by the French, who ruthlessly exploited the land for its resources.
This, along with participation in both World Wars building that sense of nationalism we keep talking about, grated in the region. They began to protest, and the French passed loi cadre or the allowing of local governance. By 1960, this region had successfully negotiated independence.
This was one of the violent ones. In a nutshell, the National Liberation front of the nation waged a guerilla war against the French and won, but at a price: many civilians were killed.
Nigeria gained independence in 1960, but that’s actually not what we’re here to talk about. Similar to Canada, there was a secessionist movement-- specifically, the Biafra secessionist movement.
This eastern section of Nigeria actually briefly succeeded in their goals, declaring independence for three years. They did so on the grounds that Nigeria was committing crimes against an ethnic group, mostly the Igbo people (many of whom lived in east Nigeria).
Inspired by other African independence movements, Angola declared independence. Yet their rulers at the time, the Portuguese sent troops to subdue this uprising.
This went about as well as could be expected. A war ensued, but it was cut off by a coup back in Portugal. Yet this power gap only led to the Angolan Civil War. See above for details.
Match each term to their correct category
Countries that negotiated independence
Countries that warred for independence
French West Africa
British Gold Coast/Ghana
|Negotiated independence||Warred for Independence||Secessionist Movements|
|French West Africa, Ghana, India||Angola, Kenya, Algeria||Biafra, Quebecois|
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