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🚀  Thematic Guides

✈️  Unit 9: Globalization

👉  Introduction to AP World

Continuity and Change Over Time in the AP Histories

#ccot

#examskills

⏱️  23 min read

written by

william dramby

June 18, 2020


The one thing you need to know about this historical reasoning skill:

Continuities and Change Over Time

This is a historical reasoning process where students need to identify the distinct changes and continuities that exist during a set time and place.  Sometimes students will address themes to such political changes in China in the 20th Century or will have to compare social changes in Europe and Asia because of the Industrial Revolution.  The CCOT is a Historical Reasoning Process that shows-up on the multiple-choice, short answer and free-response sections of the exam.

📘College Board Description

Reasoning processes describe the cognitive operations that students will be required to apply when engaging with the historical thinking skills on the AP Exam. The reasoning processes ultimately represent the way practitioners think in the discipline. Specific aspects of the cognitive process are defined under each reasoning process.

  • Identify patterns of continuity and/or change over time.

  • Describe patterns of continuity and/or change over time.

  • Explain the relative historical significance of specific historical developments in relation to a larger pattern of continuity and/or change.

🔎Organizing Question

How have individuals and societies changed over time and how have they stayed the same? Why?

Continuities and Change Over Time

How have you changed since you were younger? This is a pretty easy question. You have physically grown, you matured both academically and socially, and you found new hobbies, interests and activities that are age-appropriate.  Historians look for change over time. We look for how societies became wealthier, how empires fell, and the roles of different social groups changed.  

However, how have you stayed the same since you were younger?  Asking about continuities in your personality and your life is harder.  Continuities are not as obvious. Some still have a love for Star Wars movies while others will always want to play a pick-up game of basketball. Historians look for continuities over time. We look for how religion continued to play a role in peoples’ lives, how societies continued to be patriarchal, and how ideas like liberty and freedom persist.

When students study world history, they study the changes and continuities over time (CCOT). AP World History has had a rich history of asking students to write CCOT essays and use the skills in attacking stimulus-based multiple-choice questions.  

Period 1 (1200 to 1450)

1200-1450 Changes

⚡ Increase of trade along the Silk Road because of Mongol conquests and because of new stable powers

The Mongols were a nomadic tribe originating from modern day Mongolia who quickly spanned across nearly all of Eurasia, stretching from the Middle East to the eastern coast of China. In fact, the only places that were successful in fighting off the Mongols were Japan (who were aided by frequent typhoons) and India. Though short lived, an important effect of the Mongol Empire was the reunification of the Silk Roads. Prior to 1200, the Silk Roads were generally dangerous and not as prosperous as growing sea trade like in the Indian Ocean. However, the Mongols unified the Silk Roads and made it safer and easier for them to navigate.

The Mongols created Pax Mongolica or Peace of the Mongols. Trade was protected from the Mediterranean to the South China Sea. Cities like Samarkand emerged built upon trade and routes like the Trans-Saharan and Indian Ocean Trade Networks were all linked.

⚡New technologies spread like astrolabe and magnetic compass increasing exploration and trade

As empires like the Abbasid Caliphate grew across the Middle East and China grew in East Asia, new technologies were created explicitly for the functions of trade and navigation. The astrolabe, created in the Islamic World, aided travelers in using the stars to navigate (Fun fact, you can still buy astrolabes today! Though they are a bit pricey).

The Baghdad House of Wisdom is a famous example of academics and intellectualism in Dar-al-Islam, such as new innovations in algebra and trigonometry. Similarly, Song China saw a boom in innovation and new products. New forms of paper grew, leading to flying money, which we’ll discuss later, and most importantly the magnetic compass became a commonly used navigational tool.

Maritime trade growth during the period 1200 - 1450 fueled most of the technological innovation. New boats became widespread along sea trade routes. Arab dhows were ships with triangular lateen sails that were widespread in the Islamic world. Similarly, Chinese junks were small ships that traveled west from China.

⚡Buddhism spread and morphed from Northern India to Tibet, China, Southeast Asia, and Japan

Though it started in Northern India around 600 BCE, Buddhism eventually spread over the Himalayan Mountains traveling along trade routes and by various missionaries to other Asian lands. However, each region will impact the eventual form of Buddhism thus Theravada, Mahayana, and Vajrayana Buddhism emerge. 

Many comparisons can be drawn between Buddhism and Christianity, which are both religions that spread throughout this period. For example, Christianity is a proselytizing religion, which means it seeks out converts, whereas Buddhism is not. Buddhism and Christianity also both saw significant cultural diffusion and cultural blending during this time period.

⚡The Aztecs and Inca emerged as large empires in Mesoamerica and South America, respectfully

Before their eventual conquest by the Spanish Conquistadors, the Aztecs and Inca were large, thriving empires that united the peoples of Mesoamerica and South America politically, economically, and socially. While the Aztecs and Inca empires were large, complex political structures that we cannot do justice in just a few short paragraphs, there are some must-know things about the Aztecs and Incas.

The Aztecs are known especially for their architecture, such as pyramids and sacrificial/monumental architecture. They also had chinampas, large island-like farmlands that floated on water. Politically, the empire used the tribute system, where smaller conquered areas paid tribute for protection.

The Incas used the mita system, a system established by the Inca Empire in order to construct buildings or create roads throughout the empire. It was later transformed into a coercive labor system when the Spanish conquered the Inca Empire. They’re also well known for their terrace agriculture such as the stunning Machu Picchu.

Economic powers emerged like Mali Kingdom and Delhi Sultanate

Regions that lay outside Christiandom and Dar al-Islam are uniting politically, economically, and socially. The Mali Kingdom and Delhi Sultanate were both wealthy and powerful empires that saw Islam as a uniting factor.

In fact, Mali was one of the most wealthy nations in all of history, with Mansa Musa, a Mali king, being the most wealthy person in all of human history. Mali and it’s capital city Timbuktu unified the Sahara and created the Trans-Saharan Trade Route.

Trade saw new economic and financial developments

As a result of the growth of interregional trade, new financial tools were created to aid in the transfer of goods across borders. Paper money, nicknamed “flying money” was a new innovation that came from China. Further, credit became a new tool of borrowing money that aided in financial asset growth.

1200-1450 Continuities

🔗China continued to be largely a Confucian society

Confucianism has had a large influence on the culture of China since before the Qin Dynasty. Between its influence on social structure such as filial piety and political structure such as the Five Relationships, no other philosophy has so impacted China. Confucianism emphasized education and a strong bureaucracy for the Chinese government, leading to a unique political structure.

The Civil Service Exam system from the Qin Dynasty was strengthened in Tang / Song China enabling a bureaucracy built on merit and not necessary hereditary lines to develop. However, while meritocratic in theory, wealth allowed people to get tutors and special classes to learn the tests, leading to social stratification still.

🔗Patriarchy remained a strong social force across the globe

Throughout history, one of the most consistent social forces has been patriarchy. In this time period, despite there being some advances in women’s rights, specifically in the Islamic world, patriarchy continued to place men above women in the social pyramid. 

Patriarchy is one of the most important continuities throughout history, and will follow social structures not just in the post-classical era, but in essentially every part of history that you learn.

🔗Trade continued to be the primary form of economic interaction 

Trade saw many changes during this time period, as we’ve outlined above, but nevertheless, comparing the post-classical era to the classical era, trade continued to form the basis.

Period 2 (1450-1750)

1450-1750 Changes

Western Europe faced the Protestant Reformation seeing the rise of regional Christian churches and the power of the Roman Catholic Church decrease

Martin Luther challenged the role of the Roman Catholic Church in Christianity. He promoted a more personal relationship with God and the word. From his 95 Theses, will come a radical shift in European Christianity. Luther found the Catholic policy of indulgences to be the primary signal of corruption within the church, along with a host of other issues.  

New Protestant Churches emerger like the Lutheran and the Church of England while religious wars also inflame France and Germany. Other churches and sects of Christianity, like the Calvinists, will see expansions into the Americas in the 1600s. Religious wars like the Thirty Years’ War sprung up across Europe as well.

Weakening of the Roman Catholic Church occurs throughout this era with the Reformation, Scientific Revolution, and Enlightenment increasing the popularity of humanism and empiricism

The Protestant Reformation was aided by the Scientific Revolution, a movement that helped spawn higher intellectualism in Europe (though it must be noted that many of the discoveries of the Sci. Rev. either had been discovered or were aided by discoveries that had been made in the Islamic World in previous years). Important developments were advancements in physics, biology, and the development of the formal scientific method. Scientists like Copernicus and Galileo were important astronomers who helped prove astronomical facts regarding orbits. 

The Enlightenment came a bit after the Scientific Revolution, with the Enlightenment being more of a philosophical movement rather than strictly a scientific one (though science was still part!). The Enlightenment brought with it many philosophies that we still reference today such as capitalism, formally coined by Adam Smith in The Wealth of Nations, and new political theories like the separation of powers (Montesquieu), the social contract (Rousseau), and natural rights of life, liberty, and property (John Locke). The Enlightenment marked a shift in philosophy from religiosity to more of a secular form of thinking such as rationalism and empiricism.

Islamic world of Dar al-Islam expanded into large land-based empires that stretched from Europe through South Asia converting people, increasing trade connections, and forming new syncretic beliefs

The Ottoman Empire, Safavid Dynasty, and Mughal Empire all developed strong land-based empires that brought people of different languages and faiths together while also strengthening their unity under Islam. The spread of these empires was very much so due to guns, which were a new invention created after the creation of gunpowder in Song China. For example, the Ottoman Empire was able to blast through the walls of Constantinople to easily take over in 1453.

These empires developed complex political and social structures such as the Devshirme system that created janissaries. This system took Christian boys, converted them, and turned them into a large fighting force for the Ottoman Empire. An important comparison to make is religious. The Ottoman Empire was mostly Sunni Islam, the Safavids were Shia Islam, and the Mughals were Sikhism, a syncretic religion that blended Hinduism and Islam. These empires commonly fought and competed for power, such as in the Battle of Chaldiran. Chaldiran cemented Ottoman rule over eastern Turkey and Mesopotamia and limited Safavid expansion mostly to Persia. 

Major powers in the Americas, like the Iroquois, Aztec and Inca, are conquered by Europeans and led to new labor and economic systems

Beginning with Columbus in 1492 and eventually with Cortez and Pizarro, the American indigenous people were conquered by the French, English and the Spanish. Jared Diamond points out in Guns, Germs, and Steel that the Natives lacked the technology and ability to defend from disease to effectively fight back. New labor systems began to be used, some coerced, such as the encomienda and mit’a systems and eventually the use of chattel slavery, with the first slaves landing on the mainland Americas in 1619. African slaves and Native Americans were used primarily for the cultivation of cash crops, which were able to be made the most profitable crops on Earth. These crops, such as sugar led to new emphasis on coerced labor.

The Atlantic System will see trade increase between the Americas, Europe and Africa and will cause increase in slave trade, especially African corvee slavery

With the introduction of sugar cane to Brazil and the Caribbean, a new trade system emerges. Africans were ruthlessly brought from Africa to be slaves in the Americas where they were used to harvest sugar cane. The sugar, molasses, and rum made from the sugar cane in North America is then sold to Europe for manufacturing. These finished goods, like guns, were traded for slaves with the coastal slave kingdoms in Africa. This system is known as the triangular trade and forms the primary economic systems in this time period.

The Columbian Exchange will see the movement of food, animals, people, and disease.

The Columbian Exchange was arguably one of the most important events of not just this time period, but in all of world history, and is a term you MUST be familiar with. The Columbian Exchange describes the diffusion of people, food, animals, and notably disease across the Atlantic Ocean both from Europe to the Americas and from the Americas to Europe. Some important things that transferred were smallpox, which killed off some 90% of the Native population, horses, which became a staple in the Americas, cash crops like sugar and tobacco, and then from the Americas, potatoes, which increased the nutrition and lifespan of the average European.

The Columbian Exchange connected the Eastern and Western Hemispheres and created a formally globalized world. The Columbian exchange single handedly caused many of the changes we’ve discussed. 

Maritime empires emerged as the Portuguese and Dutch created port city empires and the French and British developed large colonies around the world Mercantilism and capitalism emerged as states, businesses, and individuals sought wealth by conquest and new forms of business ventures like joint-stock companies

Unlike the mostly land based empires of the post-classical era, the early modern era was marked by maritime empires, that is, empires that were spread overseas. These typically had imperial metropoles in Europe, such as the British Empire, which had colonies in the Americas and India, the Dutch Empire, that had territory in India and the Philippines, and Portugal and Spain, which had had territories in what is today Latin America.

These empires consolidated power and developed strong economic and financial tools such as joint-stock companies to grow. Companies like the British East India Company and Dutch East India Company became some of the largest companies on earth. Mercantilism became the name of the game economically speaking

New social structures emerged in Latin America as Spanish, Native Americans, and Africans of pure and mix-blood formed new social castes

The casta system saw Peninsulares (European-born Europeans), Creoles (American-born European descent), Mestizos (Mix European-Native), Mulatoes (Mix European-African), Natives, and Africans hold a strict socio-economic order based on the level of mix-blood. This was the first time in history that a social order was created strictly based off of race. This created a paradigm that continued through nearly all of world history from this point on.

1450-1750 Continuities

🔗Western Europe continued to be largely Christian with powerful monarchies

Though the Roman Catholic Church’s power diminished, Catholic, Orthodox and Protestant Christians continued to be active members of society. In general, Europe will see Christianity rule as the reigning religion, and Catholicism will see power ebb and flow throughout this time. Of course, there were some challenges to religion, especially in the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment, but overall religion will still play a HUGE role in the lives of Europeans. 

🔗Land-based empires dominated much of this era from Qing China, Mughal India, Safavid Persia, Ottoman Middle East, and Russia

The new technologies like gunpowder and the unifying force of religion allowed these societies to create empires over vast-areas and for hundreds of years. Though there was conflict, this era can also be measured by the stability of the states. Land empires, despite the growth of maritime empires, continued to have power. The Russian Tsarist Empire grew into the largest land empire in this time period, even going through westernization through Peter the Great. These empires will play a large role in expansion and imperialism in the next time period.

🔗Most societies continue the tradition of patriarchy politically, economically, socially, and culturally.

The Ottoman Janissaries were men, the Qing scholar-gentry were men, and the House of Lords in the English Parliament were men. Though some opportunities existed for women to earn economic and political power, it lacked any sort of consistency.

Period 3 (1750-1900)

1750-1900 Changes

The Industrial Revolution begins in Western Europe and spreads around the world by 1900

England, with its navigable rivers and wealth of coal deposits, was first to experience the Industrial Revolution. Naturally, Western Europe and the United States also began to thrive because of their connection to the Atlantic trade network. However, empires like Russia, Japan, Ottoman, and Qing were forced to industrialize in order to continue to be politically and economically relevant.

Between the 1700s and mid to late 1800s, the first Industrial Revolution focused on steam power (see Watt’s steam engine from the 1770s) and the transition in economics based around the cottage industry to a new use in factories and mills based off of rivers. Industrialization led to new economic theories such as laissez-faire capitalism and Marxism. Through the first Industrial Revolution, new social classes such as the middle class and industrial working class developed. Governments took specific roles in industrialization as well, such as the Meiji Era changes in Japan and Westernization efforts to avoid imperialism such as the Tanzimat Reforms and Self-Strengthening Movement.

The second Industrial Revolution focused on steel, chemicals, electricity, and precision machinery. Processes like the Bessemer process led to the growth of technology like railroads, mass manufacturing, automobiles, and the assembly line. Social stratification became a significant issue during this time as well.

The Industrial Revolution causes increased urbanization and diverse economic classes stratification

Cities like Birmingham, England were very attractive to those looking for non-skilled work. As wealth increased its impact on stratification, religion decreased its role. Working class and middle class families living in a city had opportunities for economic advancement, though slow, compared to the rural peasant / farmers. Socioeconomic movements such as Marxism grew, noting social inequities as a result of capitalism and industrialization.

Cities, while growing, were often dangerous and dirty for the lower classes. For example, London was a smog filled, dirty city that was riddled with political corruption and social stratification between the rich and the poor. 

Unionization also became a key staple of urban areas as skilled workers formed unions to protect themselves from unfair policies. For example, the Industrial Workers of the World and American Federation of Labor became large groups that promoted better conditions for workers. They helped to lead to higher wages, better working conditions, and better hours for workers.

Corvee slavery and serfdom will decrease their role in the Americas and Russia, respectfully

Paid labor was cheaper than maintaining room and board for slaves and serfs and the urban impact of industrialization meant that a constant flow of cheap labor can easily be tapped. As the world transitioned from an economy surrounded by cash crops and mercantilism to a capitalistic industrial world, paid skilled workers became a more effective form of labor as opposed to slaves and serfs who mostly worked in agriculture.

Furthermore, as the Enlightenment spread, slavery and serfdom became seen as immoral in general, with slavery being abolished across most of the world by 1900 and serfdom being abolished from Russia

Enlightenment thought and fragile social orders will lead to independence movements throughout the Americas and nationalist movements in Europe

Through European colonial powers and merchants, the Enlightenment found their way to the Americas as most of these people became independent by the early 1820s. Revolutions inspired by the Enlightenment became a key sequence of events during the period 1750 - 1900. Specifically, the American Revolution marked the first major revolution that occurred through Enlightenment principles. This quickly led to revolutions in France starting in 1789 and Haiti between 1800 - 1803. Revolutions in Latin America led by Simón Bolívar led to many new independent states in Latin America. Documents such as the Declaration of Independence, Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen, and the Jamaica Letter 

Nations began expanding more than ever through the process of imperialism

While nations had been expanding from Europe since the Columbian Exchange, industrialization led to a stronger form of territorial imperialism, especially in Africa and Asia. The Berlin Conference of 1884 had Europeans split up Africa into pieces to use for raw materials and access to more markets (M&Ms). Africans were mostly abused for labor, such as in the Belgian Congo, where Africans who did not collect enough rubber had their hands amputated. 

To justify imperialism, nations used philosophies such as social Darwinism and the idea of the White Man’s Burden (see Rudyard Kipling’s “White Man’s Burden”). These racist ideas put down imperial subjects and justified mistreatment as helping them. Political comics from this era, such as the soap advertisement below, portrayed this.

Reactions to imperialism were many, such as the Tanzimat Reforms and Self-Strengthening Movement in the Ottoman Empire and Qing China. Revolts such as the Sepoy Revolt and the Ghost Dance occurred as well, though many times they were violent and unsuccessful. Wars such as the Anglo-Zulu War and the Boer War also occurred.  

1750-1900 Continuities

🔗Monarchies continue to play a role around the world

Though the British and French monarchies saw their power decrease and the Americas tended to stay away from hereditary claims, Russia and Japan continued to solidify their power with strong monarchies. Power structures in the modern era typically were marked by either monarchies or emperors, with constitutional monarchs coming in through revolutions. Monarchies in Europe such as that under Queen Victoria in England and King Leopold II in Belgium played roles in expansion under imperialism. Imperial powers such as the Ottoman Empire and Qing China still had emperors as well. Democracy, however, saw spreads throughout this time period. 

🔗Even with challenges to the norm, most societies continued the tradition of patriarchy politically, economically, socially, and culturally

Women were gaining economic opportunities in many western nations however traditional lacked the ability to vote or hold a high office in the church. Voting rights are still limited to land-owning males in nations that have not seen an increase in the middle-class while women’s suffrage comes in the 20th Century. Feminist movements led by people like Mary Wollstonecraft in the early part of this period and Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Olympe de Gouge by the end leading into the 20th century did occur, though they did not see much significant success until the 20th century.

🔗Raw materials such as spices, cotton, and coal continue to play a large role in domestic, regional, and global trade

As imperialism and industrialization took hold during this time period, raw materials continued to be a significant area of trade and production.

Period 4 (1900-Today)

1900-Today Changes

Rapid advances in science lead to new medicines spreading (polio vaccine), new communications (Internet), new sources of power (nuclear), and new transportation (planes)

Science, now with government and religion, was a driving force of change in human society. The birth control pill allowed family planning, the Internet changed the purchasing process, and the world is more globalized than it has ever been. Medical advancements such as vaccines and by the 1970s the eradication of smallpox led to overall higher global life expectancies. Technology also brought with it new forms of communications like the aforementioned internet, along with telephones, radios, and televisions. Disease played a large role in this time period. Diseases associated with poverty such as malaria and TB persisted, but diseases associated with lifestyles such as Alzheimer’s, diabetes, and heart disease grew.

Green Revolution and commercial agriculture will allow a population explosion and largely eradicate extreme hunger

The Green Revolution was a process by which new technology was implemented to boost food production. It is marked by a use of biological and organic methods to boost food production such as genetically modified organisms (GMOs). GMOs plants, animals or microorganisms whose genetic material has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally. They were used to boost production and help food production rise during this time period. The Green Revolution brought up concerns about global climate change and the relationship between humans and the environment.

Environmental concerns increase as the developing world industrializes, agri-business use more land, and the global population increases

As scientific technology, especially technology related to farming and agri-business, humans began breaking down the environment around them, leading to things like global climate change and desertification. Deforestation also became a significant concern as humans continued to cut down forests, especially in the Amazon Rainforest, to attain more land for development. Rainforests being removed for grazing, pesticides poisoning crops and bee populations shows the challenges humanity has with the science it created. 

Globalization seen in various forms like trade (multinational corporations like Coca Cola), epidemics (1918 flu, ebola, AIDS), and immigration of people and ideas

Globalization refers to the technological, political, economic, financial, and cultural exchanges between peoples and nations that have made and continue to make the world a more interconnected and interdependent place. Globalization is an important development that changed essentially everything about the world during this time period. Prior to the 20th century and the global conflict that came with it in the first half, the world, while certainly connected, was still mostly split into individual nations that did not work together on a large scale. As communication increased in the 20th century, globalization became the name of the game. 

Economically, multinational corporations became commonplace, such as Coca Cola, or Nike. Economic and political organizations such as the United Nations, World Bank, IMF, and many others popped up as global entities that helped run the entire world. Free trade deals and international trade agreements such as NAFTA, ASEAN, and the European Union. However, there have been negative effects of globalization, such as a separation of the First World, such as the USA and Western Europe, and the developing Third World, sometimes also described as the Global South, in which there is a larger economic disparity between rich and poor countries. Globalization has also brought with it dissemination of epidemic and pandemic diseases such as the 1918 Influenza Pandemic, the Ebola Epidemic, AIDS Crisis, and most recently, the COVID-19 Pandemic

Culturally, new global pop culture grew, such as reggae, bollywood, the olympics, and the World Cup. People conceptualized society and culture in new ways; rights-based discourses challenged old assumptions about race, class, gender, and religion such as global feminist movements and negritude.

Transnational movements also grew, such as the Quebecois movement in Canada, and Pan-Arabism and Pan-Africanism in Africa and the Middle East.

Older land-based empires like the Ottomans and Qing Dynasty collapsed.

The Ottomans, the once powerful trading center and Islamic hub, fell as it failed to progress successfully. Following World War I, it quickly fell and under Mustafa Kamal Ataturk, it became Turkey. For years prior, the Ottoman Empire had been named the “sick man of Europe” and despite the Tanzimat Reforms helping somewhat, by taking the side of Germany in the first World War, they quickly dissolved into Turkey.

After thousands of years of imperial rule and dynastic succession, the last Chinese dynasty, the Qing fell in 1911 in the Xinhai Revolution to a nationalist uprising led by Sun Yat-Sen and Chiang Kai-shek. Quickly thereafter, the Kuomintang, or Chinese Nationalist Party rose to power and ran the country until 1949, when Mao Zedong helped form the Chinese Communist Party and take over China. 

Decolonization will see freedom and conflict emerge in nations. 

One of the most important aspects of the 20th century was the process of decolonization, in which countries across the globe broke free of their imperial owners and became independent nations. Most notably, decolonization in the 20th century took place in Africa, South Asia, and Southeast Asia.

In Africa, decolonization was widespread. In North Africa, such as in Algeria, decolonization was met with violence and the death of 140,000 Algerian soldiers. Elsewhere, decolonization was negotiated, such as protests against apartheid until South Africa’s independence in 1994 under Nelson Mandela. Similarly, after World War II, French West Africa split into many nations such as Guinea, Senegal, Côte D’Ivoire, and Niger.

India is an important example of decolonization that you must know. Led by Mohandas Gandhi and Muhammad Ali Jinnah, India gained its independence through civil disobedience such as the Salt March. However, after succeeding in their goal, Jinnah and the Muslim League, split off into the state of Pakistan, in which heavy border disputes ensued.

In Southeast Asia, the most significant decolonized states were Vietnam and Cambodia. In Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh led a violent revolution to overthrow the French, with the French finally losing at Dien Bien Phu. Vietnam quickly became communist and split into South Vietnam and North Vietnam, and the Vietnam War soon followed as part of the Cold War. Cambodia similarly formed a Marxist state and under Pol Pot, the Cambodian Genocide took out any signs of intellectualism.

Global conflicts over land and political ideologies increase in the first half of the 20th Century

The first major global conflict to occur in this time period was the First World War. After the killing of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the Triple Alliance and Triple Entente quickly caused the war to escalate from a regional crisis to a world wide war. WWI had MANIA causes: (List Mania Causes). The First World War ended in November of 1918 after the Third Battle of Picardy and the signing of the Treaty of Versailles, which blamed Germany and charged them massive war reparations. World War I also saw new forms of war such as trench warfare and the use of chlorine gas by the Germans.

Following World War I, the interwar years saw massive debt and inflation on the German side caused complete economic collapse. This, compounded by the Great Depression in 1929, contributed to the rise of Adolf Hitler in 1933 and the German invasion of Poland in 1939 and the start of World War II. World War II was another major global conflict that involved the Allied Powers and Axis Powers and ended with another German defeat in 1941 after the Battle of the Bulge.

World War II similarly saw the beginning of genocides, the systematic murder of a race of people. Global genocides were relatively common during the 20th century, beginning with the Armenian Genocide during World War I 

1900-Today Continuities

🔗The process of Westernization continues outside Europe and the United States to Japan, South Korea, Russia, India and beyond

Bollywood emerges as a center for movie making while pop-stars from South Korea thrive in the global market, and cities like Tokyo, Japan look just like New York City with their lights and sounds.

🔗Economic globalization that started with the Silk Road continues on land, sea, and air

Cotton from Georgia is shipped to Bangladesh to be made into a shirt which is then shipped to Hondars to be printed on and then back to the US for retail sail. Hands from three continents played a role in a simple shirt finding it cheaper to move the materials around than find one location to produce the whole item.

Patriarchy and racist beliefs, despite seeing vast improvements, still exist

  

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