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Short Answer Questions (SAQ)

AP World Britain and India SAQ Answers & Feedback

12 min readjanuary 2, 2021

eric515101

Eric Beckman

fiveable-mrliddle

Evan Liddle


AP World History 🌍

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View student writing samples for a AP World History: Modern SAQ and corresponding feedback provided by Fiveable teachers Eric Beckman (also was an exam reader) and Evan Liddle. It is important to learn what students did correct AND incorrect to improve one's own SAQ writing.

Practice SAQ Prompt

British-poster produced in India, sometime between 1914 and 1918
https://firebasestorage.googleapis.com/v0/b/fiveable-92889.appspot.com/o/images%2F-4wYG0gRNLdhH.png?alt=media&token=913187c7-8a35-46bf-9e16-72b13cc1570d
Urdu text: “This soldier is defending India. He is protecting his home and family. The best way to help your family is to join the army”
  1. Describe how ONE historical process is reflected in the image.
  2. Explain ONE change in the relationship between India and Britain in the century after this poster was produced.
  3. Explain ONE similarity between how this poster attempted to mobilize people and another empire’s mobilization campaign, c. 1900 - c. 1950.

SAQ Student Answers and Feedback

Practice Submission 1

  1. One historical process that is being demonstrated here is propaganda. Countries all around the world use propaganda to convince their citizens as to why their actions are just and moral. In this image, there is propaganda because it portrays the soldier as one who is moral and righteous and other citizens should be like him.
  2. One change is when the British arrived, the British viewed Indians as people the British could extract resources from. However, once this poster was created, The British viewed Indians as people that could enforce the British orders in India.
  3. One similarity between how this poster attempted to mobilize people and how the USA attempted to mobilize their people for World War 2 is propaganda. Propaganda was used by both countries in order to fear monger the population into believing what the government is doing is good for them

Teacher Feedback

1. Propaganda is a specific development but is too narrow to qualify as a “historical process.” The larger process might be Total War or Militarization of Society. 2. This answer is well structured, the before and the after to demonstrate change. I would say you could strengthen this answer by pointing out the context of World War I OR you could provide evidence of the previous view of Indians, perhaps mention the White Man’s Burden? Specific evidence makes an answer stronger. 3. Mostly the same as above, but the answer would, again, be stronger with a specific reference like the target of most American Propaganda (Japan) or specific American Actions like the Atlantic Charter. Overall keep in mind that each answer should have one specific piece of evidence. Keep practicing!

Practice Submission 2

  1. One historical process that is reflected in the image is persuasion. The British government is trying to get the Indian people to join the army and support the mother country and their economy. They use tactics like threatening families to get support from young men to join and protect their family from foreign invaders, when it’s really the British government they have to worry about.
  2. In the century after the poster was produced, the British had left India alone to survive. Other peoples were looking to take over, or become a business partner, India because of the surplus of raw materials and labor, as well as lack of industrialization. The Britain became one of those countries who were looking to engage in trade, even if India was not in a position to make much profit.
  3. Another civilization that used propaganda was Russia in the early 1900s. They depicted the western super powers as monsters looking to take over their lands and wanting to harm the people. They used this way of propaganda as a way to advocate nationalism that would allow them to see world war one through.

Teacher Feedback

1. The first part is meant to bring a broad trend, something beyond the specific image. You are absolutely correct about the intent of the image, and you could tie that to a bigger them like mobilizing resources in empires during World War One or total war. The idea is that your answer would apply to many situations. 2. The important context for this question is that India was a British colony when the poster was made, but that people in British India challenged that more directly and more frequently after the War. 3. You’re correct about Russian propaganda, although “western super powers” is a little vague. Do you mean Germany and the Central Powers during World War One and/or Two? Or, you might specify the capitalist West, including the US, during the Cold War.

Practice Submission 3

1.) One historical process which is reflected in this image is the use of colonial troops in the world wars. They would fight with the motherland with the Allied nations. This also shows propaganda, which India started to use to make people think that they are protecting their nation. 2.) One change in the relationship between India and Britain in the century after this poster was produced was the idea of India gaining independence from Britain. India was in a deal with Britain that if India used their troops to fight with Britain, they would be able to gain independence from Britain after the war. Thus, propaganda was used to help gather more troops. 3.) A similarity between how this poster attempted to mobilize people and the mobilization campaign of another empire’s is the use of propaganda to make citizens believe that it is for the good of their nation and for the good of their family back home. Germany uses propaganda as just like India as an attempt to mobilize people to build up their army. Germans had the same rational as India for mobilization.

Teacher Feedback

1. This question is looking for a broader theme, something from beyond the document. You’re right about the use of colonial troops, so a broader theme would be colonialism or British imperialism. You want to show the reader that you know something beyond the document. Or, instead of propaganda, you could extend out to Total War or mass mobilization in global conflicts. Either way something bigger than what is directly in the source. 2. You’re right about independence. This would be stronger with specific evidence, such as Indian National Congress or Gandhi. Again, specifics establish that you understand something beyond the prompt. 3. This is good, although it would be a bit stronger to indicate when Germany did this. It seems that you mean also during World War One, which is true.

Practice Submission 4

  1. The historical process reflected in the image above colonialism because it shows us that the British employ propaganda to show that if you really are Indian than you would fight with the British implying a forced nationalism to some degree.
  2. In the century following the production of the poster, India undergoes a revolution for independence which they ultimately achieved.
  3. The United States employed a similar method to mobilize people with posters of Uncle Sam to try to use an emotional and patriotic response from the people and this leads to them mobilizing and joining the military.

Teacher Feedback

1. Colonialism is right, and this would be stronger if described British colonialism in India a little bit. Unless the prompt directly asks you to describe or explain the source material, most of your answer should be about something beyond the image, such as British colonialism. 2. You have identified a key change from after the poster, but an “explain” prompt will usually require a second and maybe a third sentence. How and/or why did this revolution happen? 3. Excellent example with an explanation. Would be even stronger if you specified world War One for the “I Want You”.

Practice Submission 5

  1. One process occurring is the use of propaganda as a means of persuasion as well as the use of military to legitimize rule. This occurs in an effort to convince Indians that fighting for the British is the way to go. In the picture, it depicts the man as someone of confidence and might, suggesting that if one was to join the troops, they too might possess those same characteristics.
  2. In the century after this picture was produced, India broke free of Britain’s chains. although many of Britain’s cultural aspects such as tea drinking remained. India became a center for novel textiles as well as rich in raw materials.
  3. One comparable use of propaganda with this picture is Hitler’s use of radio as well as photos as a means for persuasion of his opinions on the Aryan race. Both campaigns strive to convince people that their way of life was an exemplary form of righteousness and that following their lead would only bring about a positive change in character.

Teacher Feedback

1. The phrase “legitimize rule” is useful here. Propaganda is a technique, but legitimizing rule is a historical process. This would score a point. 2. This would be stronger with a piece of specific evidence about Indian independence. You are correct about the continuity, but that is not the question. 3. Quality answer! Moves beyond just “Hitler” to discuss two propaganda techniques and how they worked. This would also score a point.

Practice Submission 6

  1. A historical process that is reflected in the image is the attempts of Indian militarism through the usage of propaganda. The Urdu text beneath the image of an Indian soldier, covering and essentially ‘protecting’ India and the entire Indian nation, is trying to persuade and encourage the Indian people to sign up and get drafted into the war. During the issuing of this image to the public, the Great Britain was fighting in the Great War, or WWI. Since the war caused major loss of English life, Britain was trying to use its large colonial influences. This can be seen in the attempt at militarizing India so that they can fight in WWI - which is what happened.
  2. A century after this poster was produced, strong Indian nationalism emerged. During the time period in which the poster was made, India fought alongside Britain to prove that they could be independent and that they didn’t need the British in order to survive. After participating in WWI alongside Britain, Indian nationalism spread quickly. Britain allowed India to self-rule themselves, After Britain removed itself from India, Indian independence movements began and India eventually gains its independence from imperial Britain.
  3. Like the British poster’s attempts at mobilization of its peoples, Germany also dispersed a lot of war propaganda to help Germany mobilize its armies rapidly. Like most other countries that participated in WWI, Germany and Britain shared propaganda to try and encourage more young men to join the war cause. The propaganda not only helped increase mobilization and militarism ideologies, but the propaganda also promoted strong nationalism. This propaganda helped governments convince its people the reason for war.

Teacher Feedback

1. The last three sentences are enough to earn the point. The Great War was a historical process and you describe how the image fits into mobilization for total war. 2. This is also a strong response. I like the explanation of the connection between WWI and independence. This would earn a point. 3. Strong again! Would be better with an example, although “militarism” and Germany might be specific enough.

Practice Submission 7

  1. Military propaganda is an example of a historical process reflected in the image. Britain wanted Indians to join their military, and propaganda is still used today to entice people to join the military.
  2. At the time the poster was produced, India was under British rule, and many Indians served in the British army. Following the century after this military propaganda poster was produced, India gained independence from Britain.
  3. Britain wanted to recruit colonized people to fight in their army, whereas Spain did not. Britain tried to appeal to Indians in order to get them to be a part of their military, but Spain’s army consisted solely of Spaniards and no colonized people.

Teacher Feedback

1. You are correct that this is propaganda, and your description of its purpose and technique is on target. Propaganda is too narrow to be a historical process, though. This should be connected to a larger development, perhaps mobilization or total war, related to World War One. 2. You have identified an important change. This would be stronger with explanation of how World War One might have caused some Indians to favor independence from Britain. An explanation requires one more thought, a connection between what was and what changed. 3. Spain did not fight directly in either World War, so I don’t think this is relevant.

Practice Submission 8

  1. One historical process reflected in this image is colonialism. This is shown by the Indian man wearing clothes more commonly worn by British people and by Britain asking for India’s help in the World War to support them, implying the control that they had over India.
  2. One change in the relationship between India and Britain in the century after this was posted was India gaining independence. After the promise of freedom in exchange for fighting in the war, the Indian people fought for their freedom and were granted it in 1947.
  3. The United States used a similar method of propaganda to Britain’s poster in India with the concept of Uncle Sam. Both figures served a purpose of recruiting civilians to fight in the war and join the country in fighting for what’s right. Both also drew on ideas of fighting for the safety of your country and family.

Teacher Feedback

1. Colonialism and an excellent answer as that is a broad historical process. 2. Indian independence is also an excellent answer, but in your answer could be stronger by pointing out that the struggle was non-violent and that it was because the British did not honor their promise for home rule. 3. Excellent answer.

Practice Submission 9

  1. One historical process that’s reflected is this image is total war, this is because total war brings countries together and closer and it allows them to rely on other countries for the help of their weapons. British soldiers did what they had to do in order to be successful in their wars such as getting help from indian sepoys since they were the majority of the population. Indian sepoys were promised some advantages if they worked with the british soldiers such as having protection so they agreed to help the british soldiers.
  2. One change in the relationship between India and Britain is that Indian sepoys started getting upset and started rebelling because they felt they weren’t being respected by the british soldiers. Indian sepoys got upset because they believed that the british guns contained meat from pork and from cows which were 2 different things that hindus and muslims were forbidden to eat. They led to Indian sepoys and british to get into conflict more often like the indian revolt of 1857.
  3. One similarity between how this poster attempted to mobilize people and how Japan attempted to mobilize its people was through sending men to fight in the wars. Britain convinced Indian sepoys to go fight in their wars because they promised that there would be more protection for them and their families and they had promised them that they would soon gain their independence. Japan sent men to war which allowed women more opportunities to work and allowed men to mobilize.

Teacher Feedback

1. I think that you would earn a point for this response. “Total war” was a historical process, and troop recruitment was part of it. Well done! 2. The Indian Rebellion (aka Sepoy Mutiny or Rebellion) happened before World War One. So, that would be part of the context, but was not a change afterwards. 3. Using “mobilize” here is on target and effective. It would be stronger if you specified which wars. Japan did not mobilize for total war in the First World War, but did in the Second. Also, I don’t think that Britain promised Indian enlistees independence, although they did hint at more rights after the war.

Practice Submission 10

  1. One historical process that is being shown in the picture is colonialism. While India was under the British rule, the British built new railroads and harbor systems. Many other important inventions were produced such as the telegraph system.
  2. A change that occurred between India and Britain in the century after the poster was produced was India striving for independence from Britain. To reach this goal, India entered a revolution to fight for what they wanted. Eventually, they would receive the freedom they wanted. In the late 1800s, the Indian National Congress was established as well.
  3. During World War I the “I Want You!” campaign was produced by the United States government to influence people to join the army. Similar to the picture, the poster was actually persuasive towards people and influenced them to join the army.

Teacher Feedback

1. Colonialism is an appropriate response here, but your description should explain the aspects of colonialism evident in the image. 2. This is very close. You are correct that the movement for independence was an important change after the poster was produced. This would be stronger if you included how the INC pushed for independence AFTER the Great War. 3. Right on! A full point for this.

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