🚀 Thematic Guides
Theme 1: INTERACTION OF EUROPE AND THE WORLD (INT)
Theme 4 (SOP) - States and Other Institutions of Power
Theme 6 (NEI) - National and European Identity
🎨 Unit 1: Renaissance and Exploration
1.6Age of Exploration
⛪️ Unit 2: Age of Reformation
2.4Wars of Religion
2.616th-Century Society & Politics in Europe
👑 Unit 3: Absolutism and Constitutionalism
3.1Context of State Building from 1648-1815
3.2The English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution
3.3Continuities and Changes to Economic Practice and Development from 1648-1815
3.6Balance of Power in Europe from 1648-1815
🤔 Unit 4: Scientific, Philosophical, and Political Developments
4.0Unit 4 Overview: Scientific, Philosophical, and Political Developments
4.1Context of the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment
4.518th Century Culture and Art in Europe
🥖 Unit 5: Conflict, Crisis, and Reaction in the Late 18th Century
5.0Unit 5 Overview: Conflict, Crisis, and Reaction in the Late 18th-Century
5.2The Rise of Global Markets in the 18th-Century
5.4The French Revolution
5.6Napoleon's Rise, Dominance, and Defeat
🚂 Unit 6: Industrialization and Its Effects
6.0Unit 6 Overview: Industrialization and Its Effects
6.2The First Industrial Revolution
6.3The Second Industrial Revolution
6.4Social Effects of Industrialization
6.5The Concert of Europe and European Conservatism
6.6Revolutions from 1815-1914
6.7Intellectual Developments from 1815-1914
6.819th Century Social Reform Movements
6.9Institutional Reforms of the 19th Century
✊ Unit 7: 19th-Century Perspectives and Political Developments
7.0Unit 7 Overview: 19th-Century Perspectives and Political Developments
7.3National Unification and Diplomatic Tensions
7.7Effects of Imperialism
💣 Unit 8: 20th-Century Global Conflicts
8.4Versailles Conference and Peace Settlement
8.6Fascism and Totalitarianism
🥶 Unit 9: Cold War and Contemporary Europe
9.4Two Super Powers Emerge
9.7The Fall of Communism
9.1420th- and 21st-Century Culture, Arts, and Demographic Trends
🧐 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
📋 Short Answer Questions (SAQ)
📝 Long Essay Questions (LEQ)
AP European History Free Response Help - FRQ/LEQ
⏱️ 2 min read
May 11, 2020
Humanism, which gave some Europeans a sense of individualism and a confidence in their ability to reason during the Renaissance and Protestant Reformation periods, began to branch into other interests beyond the 16th century.
Individualism manifested itself in intellectuals who were interested in sciences, people and places who had recently been discovered by Europeans, and politics. As interest in challenging traditional authorities in these areas intensified and populations expanded in cities, conversations about reform and new advancements became the norm.
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Intellectuals began studying older Classical works of Aristotle and Ptolemy, among others, concerning planetary motion, observations and explanations for natural phenomena, and the human anatomy in regards to medicine. Scientists like Nicholas Copernicus, Galileo Galilei, Isaac Newton, William Harvey, and others become commonly discussed names during this era as these men work in quiet to challenge Church doctrine and commonly accepted untruths.
These men rely on empirical knowledge, observations in nature, mathematics, and logic to formulate theories and facts rather than accepting the traditional, unproven beliefs. However, this is a slippery slope for the Church, as many officials worry that if humans require visual proof for everything, faith would become a thing of the past.
🎥 Watch: AP Euro - Enlightenment
Another group of intellectuals concerned themselves not with the sciences, but with the daily lives of individuals. Extreme poverty was still common in the countryside and in cities. While cities and towns offered different forms of specialized jobs, many remained farmers with no formal training in any trade and no education.
Due to these circumstances, many found themselves at the mercy of shop owners, land lords, and the monarchy. To break from this, some intellectuals of the time sought a more balanced system of government, where people could have some say in their leadership or laws in place. Others began to introduce small reforms that would adjust the economy in favor of the poor and alleviate the overburdening taxes they were forced to pay.
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To view main events and major trends in this time period, read this guide here!
🎥 Watch: AP Euro - Scientific Revolution
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