🚀 Thematic Guides
Theme 1: INTERACTION OF EUROPE AND THE WORLD (INT)
Theme 4 (SOP) - States and Other Institutions of Power
Theme 6 (NEI) - National and European Identity
🎨 Unit 1: Renaissance and Exploration
1.6Age of Exploration
⛪️ Unit 2: Age of Reformation
2.4Wars of Religion
2.616th-Century Society & Politics in Europe
👑 Unit 3: Absolutism and Constitutionalism
3.1Context of State Building from 1648-1815
3.2The English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution
3.3Continuities and Changes to Economic Practice and Development from 1648-1815
3.6Balance of Power in Europe from 1648-1815
🤔 Unit 4: Scientific, Philosophical, and Political Developments
4.0Unit 4 Overview: Scientific, Philosophical, and Political Developments
4.1Context of the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment
4.518th Century Culture and Art in Europe
🥖 Unit 5: Conflict, Crisis, and Reaction in the Late 18th Century
5.0Unit 5 Overview: Conflict, Crisis, and Reaction in the Late 18th-Century
5.2The Rise of Global Markets in the 18th-Century
5.4The French Revolution
5.6Napoleon's Rise, Dominance, and Defeat
🚂 Unit 6: Industrialization and Its Effects
6.0Unit 6 Overview: Industrialization and Its Effects
6.2The First Industrial Revolution
6.3The Second Industrial Revolution
6.4Social Effects of Industrialization
6.5The Concert of Europe and European Conservatism
6.6Revolutions from 1815-1914
6.7Intellectual Developments from 1815-1914
6.819th Century Social Reform Movements
6.9Institutional Reforms of the 19th Century
✊ Unit 7: 19th-Century Perspectives and Political Developments
7.0Unit 7 Overview: 19th-Century Perspectives and Political Developments
7.3National Unification and Diplomatic Tensions
7.7Effects of Imperialism
💣 Unit 8: 20th-Century Global Conflicts
8.4Versailles Conference and Peace Settlement
8.6Fascism and Totalitarianism
🥶 Unit 9: Cold War and Contemporary Europe
9.4Two Super Powers Emerge
9.7The Fall of Communism
9.1420th- and 21st-Century Culture, Arts, and Demographic Trends
🧐 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
📋 Short Answer Questions (SAQ)
📝 Long Essay Questions (LEQ)
AP European History Free Response Help - FRQ/LEQ
May 7, 2020
The Renaissance first began in Italy in the 15th century then later spread across Europe with the revival of classical texts and new humanist values. New scientific and secular views began to emerge during this time period. This was known as the time when society evolved from medieval to modern times. The Renaissance in Europe was characterized by growing national consciousness and political centralization, an urban economy based on organized commerce and capitalism, and a growing control of secular thought and culture.
Due to the economy evolving during this period, the creation of city-states, cities which controlled the political and economic life of the surrounding countryside, became prominent. The creation of city-states led to a new social group in Italy: the urban rich. This class consisted of local nobility and the newly rich.
Five major city-states evolved from this time period: Milan, Florence, Venice, Naples, and the Papal States. Oligarchies also emerged during this time and they hired strongmen to maintain law and order in their city-states. They used absolute power, especially in a cruel and oppressive way. The rise of warfare and political turbulence led to the rise of diplomacy, in which despots created embassies and even appointed ambassadors to other city-states.
During the Italian Renaissance, new values of secularism and individualism challenged the teachings of the Catholic Church, institutional powers of universities, artistic and political behaviors. As education shifted towards the teaching of classical texts and new methods of scientific inquiry, everyone was questioning their preexisting realities.
This time period was also characterized by new ideas like naturalism and new techniques of geometric perspective. The concept of patronage and a refocus on art and artistic supports grew. The questioning in the Catholic Church teaching promoted an individualist approach to religion.
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🎥 Watch: AP Euro - Italian Renaissance
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