🚀 Thematic Guides
Theme 1: INTERACTION OF EUROPE AND THE WORLD (INT)
Theme 4 (SOP) - States and Other Institutions of Power
Theme 6 (NEI) - National and European Identity
🎨 Unit 1: Renaissance and Exploration
1.6Age of Exploration
⛪️ Unit 2: Age of Reformation
2.4Wars of Religion
2.616th-Century Society & Politics in Europe
👑 Unit 3: Absolutism and Constitutionalism
3.1Context of State Building from 1648-1815
3.2The English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution
3.3Continuities and Changes to Economic Practice and Development from 1648-1815
3.6Balance of Power in Europe from 1648-1815
🤔 Unit 4: Scientific, Philosophical, and Political Developments
4.0Unit 4 Overview: Scientific, Philosophical, and Political Developments
4.1Context of the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment
4.518th Century Culture and Art in Europe
🥖 Unit 5: Conflict, Crisis, and Reaction in the Late 18th Century
5.0Unit 5 Overview: Conflict, Crisis, and Reaction in the Late 18th-Century
5.2The Rise of Global Markets in the 18th-Century
5.4The French Revolution
5.6Napoleon's Rise, Dominance, and Defeat
🚂 Unit 6: Industrialization and Its Effects
6.0Unit 6 Overview: Industrialization and Its Effects
6.2The First Industrial Revolution
6.3The Second Industrial Revolution
6.4Social Effects of Industrialization
6.5The Concert of Europe and European Conservatism
6.6Revolutions from 1815-1914
6.7Intellectual Developments from 1815-1914
6.819th Century Social Reform Movements
6.9Institutional Reforms of the 19th Century
✊ Unit 7: 19th-Century Perspectives and Political Developments
7.0Unit 7 Overview: 19th-Century Perspectives and Political Developments
7.3National Unification and Diplomatic Tensions
7.7Effects of Imperialism
💣 Unit 8: 20th-Century Global Conflicts
8.4Versailles Conference and Peace Settlement
8.6Fascism and Totalitarianism
🥶 Unit 9: Cold War and Contemporary Europe
9.4Two Super Powers Emerge
9.7The Fall of Communism
9.1420th- and 21st-Century Culture, Arts, and Demographic Trends
🧐 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
📋 Short Answer Questions (SAQ)
📝 Long Essay Questions (LEQ)
AP European History Free Response Help - FRQ/LEQ
May 11, 2020
For years, nobility and monarchies did their best to limit the other’s power. With the rise of religious reforms, many nobles switched to Protestant sects while many monarchies remained devout Catholics. This religious change only exacerbated existing problems and brought a lot of tension between the two aristocratic groups. It would soon become a major cause of the two bloodiest religious wars. ⚔️
🎥 Watch: AP European History - Martin Luther and Reformation
In the Holy Roman Empire (which is neither holy nor Roman), the Habsburgs rulers were faced with two problems: an expanding Ottoman Empire on the East and the rise of Protestantism in the West. In the West, Charles V would confront Martin Luther about his 95 Theses at the Diet of Worms, but it was much too late. Luther’s ideas had spread, and there was nothing Charles V could do about it.
The Habsburg rulers were the largest, most influential family in Europe. You could find them in practically every royal family. They were the rulers of the Holy Roman Empire and devout Catholics. When the German states and the princes under them converted to Protestantism (Schmalkaldic League), Charles V (current ruler of the HRE) fought them in the Schmalkaldic Wars before coming to a resolution known as the Peace of Augsburg. From then on, German princes could choose between Lutheranism and Catholicism only (no Calvinism!)
The Peace of Augsburg
Image Courtesy of Wikimedia
France and Central Europe were the battlefields for the two bloodiest religious wars during this time. As Protestantism spread, tension grew between Catholics and Protestants, too.
In Germany, Martin Luther’s ideas influenced German peasants to revolt (German Peasants’ War). Hundreds of thousands of peasants rose up against their land owners to fight for social equality and religious/economic freedom. The violence of these peasants horrified Luther, and he actually supported the aristocrats in putting down the revolt through any means necessary.
In France, Catholics fought against the Huguenots (French Calvinists). This tension was even prominent in the aristocracy and monarchy. Protestant nobles struggled with a Catholic monarchy, and this discourse rippled down to the lower levels of society before culminating into the St. Bartholomew Day’s Massacre. The French Wars of Religion would eventually result in the War of the Three Henrys with Henry of Navarre becoming King Henry IV and converting to Catholicism to maintain peace.
🎥 Watch: AP European History - French Wars of Religion
Flag of the Catholic League
Image Courtesy of Wikimedia
In Bohemia (present day Czech Republic), the election of a new king would cause a division between Catholics and Protestants. Afraid that the new Catholic king, Ferdinand II, would strip away Protestant rights, some Bohemian leaders elected Frederick V, a Protestant.
Although it was certain that Ferdinand II would end up on the throne, since he was personally chosen by the previous King, that didn’t stop Protestant opposition. In fact, the supporters of Frederick V were so peeved, they threw some of Ferdinand II’s Catholic representatives out of a 69 feet high window! This event, called the Defenestration of Prague (defenestrate = a fancy word for throwing someone out a window), sparked Europe’s bloodiest religious war, the Thirty Years’ War.
Ended in 1648 with the Peace of Westphalia, the peace destroyed any remaining medieval ideas of universal Christianity. It also sped up the decline of the Holy Roman Empire even more after the Diet of Augsburg. While the Peace of Augsburg allowed German princes to choose between Lutheranism and Catholicism, the Peace of Westphalia granted the option to choose to other princes, bishops, and local leaders.
Place & Time
Ferdinand II, Johann Tserclaes of Tilly, Frederick V, Count Ernst von Mansfeld
The Defenestration of Prague
Battle of White Mountain (Catholic victory)
Germany and Denmark, 1625-1629
Ferdinand II, Albrecht von Wallenstein, Christian IV
Frederick V flees to Holland & Denmark supports Protestants
Peace of Lübeck (Catholic victory)
Gustavus Adolphus, Wallenstein, Cardinal Richelieu
Invasion of Germany by Sweden’s king
Death of Swedish King, Gustavus Adolphus, in battle
Cardinal Richelieu, HRE, Maximilian of Bavaria
France gets directly involved in the fighting
Peace of Westphalia, 1648
🎥 Watch: AP European History - Thirty Years' War
With all of this discourse, certain countries sought to exploit religion for their own gains. They saw it as a reason (or justification) to achieve national unity or more power.
Spain was the Catholic Church’s biggest supporter. Ruled by Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile, it took this time of religious turmoil to get rid of all the Muslims and Jews in the nation. The Spanish Inquisition sought out any people who weren’t Catholic and gave them two options: convert or leave.
Image Courtesy of Getty Images
In England, King Henry VIII faced a dilemma that would forever change the country: how was he going to divorce his wife, Catherine of Aragon, if the Pope wouldn’t let him? 💔 His solution was to leave the Catholic Church and create his own.
This divorce began the English Reformation, and King Henry became the Supreme Head of the Church of England during this time. ♚ After his death, the nation would go through another rapid change back to Catholicism for a short while with Mary I (Bloody Mary!) until the English Reformation returned and culminated with Elizabeth I.
Cause of Death
King Henry VIII
3 legitimate: Edward VI, Mary I, & Elizabeth I
King of England
Catherine of Aragon
Anne of Cleves
None that matter
King of England
Lady Jane Grey
None that matter
Queen of England
Queen of England
Queen of England
In the Thirty Years’ War, Denmark, Sweden, and France all exploited the conflict in Bohemia for their own agendas. What started off as a religious war would expand into a political one as Denmark joined on the side of the Protestants to protect religious freedom in his, and other kingdoms, as well as expand his land. Sweden had the same reasons as Denmark for joining, but France, despite being Catholic, joined on the Protestant side due to a rivalry with the Habsburgs.
As the continent grew bloodier and bloodier, it was clear to everyone that a unified Catholic Europe was no longer possible. Various legal documents created after conflicts allowed for religious plurality.
Even nations that weren’t involved in conflicts, like Poland and the Netherlands, had religious pluralism. Catholicism was still the main religion in these two states, with Phillip II of Spain persecuting non-Catholics in the Netherlands, but Calvinism and various Protestant sects were allowed. 🛐
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