🚀 Thematic Guides
Theme 1: INTERACTION OF EUROPE AND THE WORLD (INT)
Theme 4 (SOP) - States and Other Institutions of Power
Theme 6 (NEI) - National and European Identity
🎨 Unit 1: Renaissance and Exploration
1.6Age of Exploration
⛪️ Unit 2: Age of Reformation
2.4Wars of Religion
2.616th-Century Society & Politics in Europe
👑 Unit 3: Absolutism and Constitutionalism
3.1Context of State Building from 1648-1815
3.2The English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution
3.3Continuities and Changes to Economic Practice and Development from 1648-1815
3.6Balance of Power in Europe from 1648-1815
🤔 Unit 4: Scientific, Philosophical, and Political Developments
4.0Unit 4 Overview: Scientific, Philosophical, and Political Developments
4.1Context of the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment
4.518th Century Culture and Art in Europe
🥖 Unit 5: Conflict, Crisis, and Reaction in the Late 18th Century
5.0Unit 5 Overview: Conflict, Crisis, and Reaction in the Late 18th-Century
5.2The Rise of Global Markets in the 18th-Century
5.4The French Revolution
5.6Napoleon's Rise, Dominance, and Defeat
🚂 Unit 6: Industrialization and Its Effects
6.0Unit 6 Overview: Industrialization and Its Effects
6.2The First Industrial Revolution
6.3The Second Industrial Revolution
6.4Social Effects of Industrialization
6.5The Concert of Europe and European Conservatism
6.6Revolutions from 1815-1914
6.7Intellectual Developments from 1815-1914
6.819th Century Social Reform Movements
6.9Institutional Reforms of the 19th Century
✊ Unit 7: 19th-Century Perspectives and Political Developments
7.0Unit 7 Overview: 19th-Century Perspectives and Political Developments
7.3National Unification and Diplomatic Tensions
7.7Effects of Imperialism
💣 Unit 8: 20th-Century Global Conflicts
8.4Versailles Conference and Peace Settlement
8.6Fascism and Totalitarianism
🥶 Unit 9: Cold War and Contemporary Europe
9.4Two Super Powers Emerge
9.7The Fall of Communism
9.1420th- and 21st-Century Culture, Arts, and Demographic Trends
🧐 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
📋 Short Answer Questions (SAQ)
📝 Long Essay Questions (LEQ)
AP European History Free Response Help - FRQ/LEQ
⏱️ 2 min read
May 11, 2020
The Dutch Republic defied the pattern of absolutist, centralized control that dominated other European nations during the 17th century. Spain ruled the Netherlands when Holy Roman Emperor Charles V inherited the Spanish throne in 1516, beginning Habsburg rule in Spain. In 1566, the Netherlands revolted against Spanish rule, officially becoming the independent Dutch Republic in 1648.
The Seven Northern Dutch provinces signed the Union of Utrecht, creating a defensive alliance against the Spanish, but they were politically independent with no absolute ruler. Instead, the States General was the legislative body, which was made up of nobles. Thus, the Dutch Republic was really more of an oligarchy, with power concentrated in the hands of wealthy merchants.
🎥 Watch: AP Euro - Absolutism v. Constitutionalism
After the split from Catholic Spain, Calvinism became the dominant religion. Religious tolerance and freedom of religion for Catholics, Lutherans, Anabaptist and Jews helped the Dutch avoid the internal religious conflicts of other European nations and contributed to commercial economic growth.
In the 17th century, the Dutch Republic was the leading commercial power in Europe, with Amsterdam serving as Europe’s financial center. The Dutch had the largest fleet in the world with 10,000 ships, and they replaced the Italians as the premier bankers of Europe, with the Amsterdam Public Bank attracting foreign merchants who could use bills of exchange as currency.
Finally, with the dominance of shipbuilding and its massive fleet, the Dutch formed the Dutch East India Trading Company, which displaced the Portuguese in control of the East India spice trade and proved to be stiff competition for the English East India Company. Dutch painting reflected the Republic’s wealth as well as its tolerance. Portraits by painters such as Jan Vermeer portrayed middle-class families, popular commodities and seascapes.
In the second half of the 17th century, England emerged as the dominant commercial power, and the Dutch Republic gradually declined. Wars against England and France drained the Dutch economy, and the Dutch West India Company failed to take control of Brazil from Portugal.
🎥 Watch: AP Euro - Economics and Society (1450-1789)
Facing increasing competition from England and France, the Dutch lost their dominance of trade and the government became more rigid and less tolerant. England stabilized under constitutionalism after the Glorious Revolution, and France stabilized under the absolutist control of Louis XIV, allowing these nations to emerge as world leaders.
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