🚀 Thematic Guides
Theme 1: INTERACTION OF EUROPE AND THE WORLD (INT)
Theme 4 (SOP) - States and Other Institutions of Power
Theme 6 (NEI) - National and European Identity
🎨 Unit 1: Renaissance and Exploration
1.6Age of Exploration
⛪️ Unit 2: Age of Reformation
2.4Wars of Religion
2.616th-Century Society & Politics in Europe
👑 Unit 3: Absolutism and Constitutionalism
3.1Context of State Building from 1648-1815
3.2The English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution
3.3Continuities and Changes to Economic Practice and Development from 1648-1815
3.6Balance of Power in Europe from 1648-1815
🤔 Unit 4: Scientific, Philosophical, and Political Developments
4.0Unit 4 Overview: Scientific, Philosophical, and Political Developments
4.1Context of the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment
4.518th Century Culture and Art in Europe
🥖 Unit 5: Conflict, Crisis, and Reaction in the Late 18th Century
5.0Unit 5 Overview: Conflict, Crisis, and Reaction in the Late 18th-Century
5.2The Rise of Global Markets in the 18th-Century
5.4The French Revolution
5.6Napoleon's Rise, Dominance, and Defeat
🚂 Unit 6: Industrialization and Its Effects
6.0Unit 6 Overview: Industrialization and Its Effects
6.2The First Industrial Revolution
6.3The Second Industrial Revolution
6.4Social Effects of Industrialization
6.5The Concert of Europe and European Conservatism
6.6Revolutions from 1815-1914
6.7Intellectual Developments from 1815-1914
6.819th Century Social Reform Movements
6.9Institutional Reforms of the 19th Century
✊ Unit 7: 19th-Century Perspectives and Political Developments
7.0Unit 7 Overview: 19th-Century Perspectives and Political Developments
7.3National Unification and Diplomatic Tensions
7.7Effects of Imperialism
💣 Unit 8: 20th-Century Global Conflicts
8.4Versailles Conference and Peace Settlement
8.6Fascism and Totalitarianism
🥶 Unit 9: Cold War and Contemporary Europe
9.4Two Super Powers Emerge
9.7The Fall of Communism
9.1420th- and 21st-Century Culture, Arts, and Demographic Trends
🧐 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
📋 Short Answer Questions (SAQ)
📝 Long Essay Questions (LEQ)
AP European History Free Response Help - FRQ/LEQ
⏱️ 2 min read
May 11, 2020
The Commercial Revolution was a sweeping reform of Europe’s economic system centered around trade and developing ideas of capitalism. New innovations in banking and finance promoted growth for financial centers and the economy. Agricultural innovation was catalyzed by the three-crop field rotation in the north and the two-crop rotation in the Mediterranean.
Western Europe gained many commodities from the New World which changed the lives of those living in Europe. Potatoes, corn, tobacco, sugar, and chocolate were all imported from the New World (through the Columbian Exchange). Gold and silver were also imported and were used as currency. Consumers now had more access to these metals, leading to inflation, especially in Spain.
This prompted the Price Revolution, which was a period of high inflation caused by the expanding market economy as a result of commercializing agriculture. Population also recovered to Pre-Plague levels, which caused uneven price increases and a generally higher cost for agricultural commodities. Living standards plummeted due to stagnant wages in an increasingly pricey economy.
Image Courtesy of The Great Courses Daily
With the advancing commercial and economic revolutions, tradition of hierarchy and status continued. However due to economic changes, there was a growth of a new economic elite class that grew in power and wealth.
The abundance of food also led to an increase in the population. This increase in population led to the migration from rural areas to urban centers. Cities offered opportunities for business owners and offered the idea of social mobility. Merchants, bankers, and capitalists became the middle class and grew in size and economic power.
Due to this Commercial Revolutions, Western Europe shifted to free peasantry and commercial agriculture. However, in the East, serfdom continued and nobles continued to dominate economic life on large estates. In cities, migrants challenged the merchant elites and crafted guilds to govern as a revolt to the elites.
As a response to these economic and environmental challenges for the population, events like the Little Ice age occurred which would delay marriages and childbearing. This ultimately led to a decrease in population growth and a decreased economic burden for families.
Image Courtesy of Wikipedia
🎥 Watch: AP European History - Medieval Europe
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