🚀 Thematic Guides
Theme 1: INTERACTION OF EUROPE AND THE WORLD (INT)
Theme 4 (SOP) - States and Other Institutions of Power
Theme 6 (NEI) - National and European Identity
🎨 Unit 1: Renaissance and Exploration
1.6Age of Exploration
⛪️ Unit 2: Age of Reformation
2.4Wars of Religion
2.616th-Century Society & Politics in Europe
👑 Unit 3: Absolutism and Constitutionalism
3.1Context of State Building from 1648-1815
3.2The English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution
3.3Continuities and Changes to Economic Practice and Development from 1648-1815
3.6Balance of Power in Europe from 1648-1815
🤔 Unit 4: Scientific, Philosophical, and Political Developments
4.0Unit 4 Overview: Scientific, Philosophical, and Political Developments
4.1Context of the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment
4.518th Century Culture and Art in Europe
🥖 Unit 5: Conflict, Crisis, and Reaction in the Late 18th Century
5.0Unit 5 Overview: Conflict, Crisis, and Reaction in the Late 18th-Century
5.2The Rise of Global Markets in the 18th-Century
5.4The French Revolution
5.6Napoleon's Rise, Dominance, and Defeat
🚂 Unit 6: Industrialization and Its Effects
6.0Unit 6 Overview: Industrialization and Its Effects
6.2The First Industrial Revolution
6.3The Second Industrial Revolution
6.4Social Effects of Industrialization
6.5The Concert of Europe and European Conservatism
6.6Revolutions from 1815-1914
6.7Intellectual Developments from 1815-1914
6.819th Century Social Reform Movements
6.9Institutional Reforms of the 19th Century
✊ Unit 7: 19th-Century Perspectives and Political Developments
7.0Unit 7 Overview: 19th-Century Perspectives and Political Developments
7.3National Unification and Diplomatic Tensions
7.7Effects of Imperialism
💣 Unit 8: 20th-Century Global Conflicts
8.4Versailles Conference and Peace Settlement
8.6Fascism and Totalitarianism
🥶 Unit 9: Cold War and Contemporary Europe
9.4Two Super Powers Emerge
9.7The Fall of Communism
9.1420th- and 21st-Century Culture, Arts, and Demographic Trends
🧐 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
📋 Short Answer Questions (SAQ)
📝 Long Essay Questions (LEQ)
AP European History Free Response Help - FRQ/LEQ
⏱️ 2 min read
May 12, 2020
Charles Darwin published On the Order of Species in 1859, after his observations in a series of trips to the Galapagos Islands brought him to question what gave some species dominance over others. He came up with the Theory of Natural Selection, in which a species evolves over a large period of time to maintain existence.
Essentially, natural selection is the basic idea of “survival of the fittest.” In this theory, a species doesn’t have to be dominant over all, just dominant over its most immediate threat to survive.
In 1871, Darwin published The Descent of Man, which applied the basic theory of natural selection and evolution to the human species. Social Darwinism is an ideology that applies the “survival of the fittest” mentality to human relationships and society.
Social Darwinism was used to support racial ideas and imperialist tendencies. At that time, scientific experimentation and theories were used to support the dominance of the white race over others. It was believed that the white race was more advanced socially, therefore should be most qualified to overpower other races outside of Europe.
A good example of this is Rudyard Kipling’s White Man’s Burden. This poem explains it is the burden of the most intelligent, strongest, most righteous of men to “take care” of natives and their possessions. Basically, it isn’t just okay for Americans and Europeans to colonize, it is their duty.
Racism had long existed in Europe. Some of the first discrimination of non-white people is displayed in Renaissance writings.
The belief in racial stereotypes was transformed when it became associated with biological sciences. Most notably, that of Charles Darwin and the theory of Social Darwinism. Darwin and his followers argued that all people were subject to the same rules of natural selection, creating a hierarchy of superior and inferior humans based on race.
One example is Pears Soap advertisements. These ads run in the early 19th century in Britain claimed that they could “cleanse” skin of dark pigmentation. This is seen in the image:
During the late 19th century and 20th century, Jews were treated more as a race than an ethnicity. The rise of anti-Semitism became more noticeable as nations defined themselves according to common histories, language, and religion. Jews were excluded from society in many places in Europe, most notably, Germany, and were subject to the same stereotypical beliefs of racism. Many Europeans believed that the Christian faith was superior to the Jewish faith.
🎥 Watch: AP European History - 19th Century -isms
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