🚀 Thematic Guides
Theme 1: INTERACTION OF EUROPE AND THE WORLD (INT)
Theme 4 (SOP) - States and Other Institutions of Power
Theme 6 (NEI) - National and European Identity
🎨 Unit 1: Renaissance and Exploration
1.6Age of Exploration
⛪️ Unit 2: Age of Reformation
2.4Wars of Religion
2.616th-Century Society & Politics in Europe
👑 Unit 3: Absolutism and Constitutionalism
3.1Context of State Building from 1648-1815
3.2The English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution
3.3Continuities and Changes to Economic Practice and Development from 1648-1815
3.6Balance of Power in Europe from 1648-1815
🤔 Unit 4: Scientific, Philosophical, and Political Developments
4.0Unit 4 Overview: Scientific, Philosophical, and Political Developments
4.1Context of the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment
4.518th Century Culture and Art in Europe
🥖 Unit 5: Conflict, Crisis, and Reaction in the Late 18th Century
5.0Unit 5 Overview: Conflict, Crisis, and Reaction in the Late 18th-Century
5.2The Rise of Global Markets in the 18th-Century
5.4The French Revolution
5.6Napoleon's Rise, Dominance, and Defeat
🚂 Unit 6: Industrialization and Its Effects
6.0Unit 6 Overview: Industrialization and Its Effects
6.2The First Industrial Revolution
6.3The Second Industrial Revolution
6.4Social Effects of Industrialization
6.5The Concert of Europe and European Conservatism
6.6Revolutions from 1815-1914
6.7Intellectual Developments from 1815-1914
6.819th Century Social Reform Movements
6.9Institutional Reforms of the 19th Century
✊ Unit 7: 19th-Century Perspectives and Political Developments
7.0Unit 7 Overview: 19th-Century Perspectives and Political Developments
7.3National Unification and Diplomatic Tensions
7.7Effects of Imperialism
💣 Unit 8: 20th-Century Global Conflicts
8.4Versailles Conference and Peace Settlement
8.6Fascism and Totalitarianism
🥶 Unit 9: Cold War and Contemporary Europe
9.4Two Super Powers Emerge
9.7The Fall of Communism
9.1420th- and 21st-Century Culture, Arts, and Demographic Trends
🧐 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
📋 Short Answer Questions (SAQ)
📝 Long Essay Questions (LEQ)
AP European History Free Response Help - FRQ/LEQ
⏱️ 2 min read
June 11, 2020
A sense of overall dread and anxiety enveloped society after the world wars and economic depressions. Many people couldn’t trust reason anymore. They often questioned what the point of life was. As a result, many of the works of art during this time focused on existentialism and postmodernism.
Despite the rise of secularism after the world wars, religion still had a significant role in society. We can even see it today with the Pope in Vatican City. In response to radical ideologies of the time such as totalitarianism and communism in Central and Eastern Europe, Christian churches had varied opinions.
For some, like German pastor Dietrich Bonhoeffer and Martin Niemoller, they directly opposed the totalitarian regimes despite the costs. Others, like Pope John Paul II, voiced their support, saying they stood in solidarity, but did not directly help. During this time, the Catholic Church also reformed the principles it operated under again in the Second Vatican Council.
The Scream, 1893 by Edvard Munch
The increasing influence of American pop culture mixed with the general sense of anxiety from the war culminated into a period of experimental art. Focusing on self-expression and subjectivity, styles like cubism, futurism, dadaism, surrealism, abstract expressionism, and pop art flourished.
From music of Igor Stravinsky, Arnold Schoenberg, and Richard Strauss to architectural styles of bauhaus and modernism, existing aesthetic standards rapidly shifted to exploring the subconscious and satirizing Western society.
Numerous writers also used the negative emotions they felt after the wars to challenge traditional values, question Western society, and bring up important political and societal issues. From the writings of Franz Kafka to Virginia Wolfe and Jean-Paul Sarte, they questioned the world around them. Multiple movements also came to the forefront of society during the 20th century. From womens’ rights to gay rights and civil rights, they were all met with varying degrees of both opposition and support.
After the Second World War, the peace and economic growth caused a huge boom (Baby Boomers) in populations. Government policies, such as neonatalism, practically encouraged this boost in the population to make up for the losses of the war.
The large population combined with mass production made consumer products of all kinds readily available. A greater disposable income also encouraged people to be more materialistic and decadent. The youth would come to revolt against this perceived materialism in the 1960s, most notably in 1968.
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