🚀 Thematic Guides
Theme 1: INTERACTION OF EUROPE AND THE WORLD (INT)
Theme 4 (SOP) - States and Other Institutions of Power
Theme 6 (NEI) - National and European Identity
🎨 Unit 1: Renaissance and Exploration
1.6Age of Exploration
⛪️ Unit 2: Age of Reformation
2.4Wars of Religion
2.616th-Century Society & Politics in Europe
👑 Unit 3: Absolutism and Constitutionalism
3.1Context of State Building from 1648-1815
3.2The English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution
3.3Continuities and Changes to Economic Practice and Development from 1648-1815
3.6Balance of Power in Europe from 1648-1815
🤔 Unit 4: Scientific, Philosophical, and Political Developments
4.0Unit 4 Overview: Scientific, Philosophical, and Political Developments
4.1Context of the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment
4.518th Century Culture and Art in Europe
🥖 Unit 5: Conflict, Crisis, and Reaction in the Late 18th Century
5.0Unit 5 Overview: Conflict, Crisis, and Reaction in the Late 18th-Century
5.2The Rise of Global Markets in the 18th-Century
5.4The French Revolution
5.6Napoleon's Rise, Dominance, and Defeat
🚂 Unit 6: Industrialization and Its Effects
6.0Unit 6 Overview: Industrialization and Its Effects
6.2The First Industrial Revolution
6.3The Second Industrial Revolution
6.4Social Effects of Industrialization
6.5The Concert of Europe and European Conservatism
6.6Revolutions from 1815-1914
6.7Intellectual Developments from 1815-1914
6.819th Century Social Reform Movements
6.9Institutional Reforms of the 19th Century
✊ Unit 7: 19th-Century Perspectives and Political Developments
7.0Unit 7 Overview: 19th-Century Perspectives and Political Developments
7.3National Unification and Diplomatic Tensions
7.7Effects of Imperialism
💣 Unit 8: 20th-Century Global Conflicts
8.4Versailles Conference and Peace Settlement
8.6Fascism and Totalitarianism
🥶 Unit 9: Cold War and Contemporary Europe
9.4Two Super Powers Emerge
9.7The Fall of Communism
9.1420th- and 21st-Century Culture, Arts, and Demographic Trends
🧐 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
📋 Short Answer Questions (SAQ)
📝 Long Essay Questions (LEQ)
AP European History Free Response Help - FRQ/LEQ
⏱️ 3 min read
May 12, 2020
Napoleon’s ideas had stayed with the people he conquered, and while some were glad to have their monarchs back in power, others couldn’t go back to living in the status quo. They wanted a strong sense of nationalism back, and some pesky Congress of Vienna wasn’t going to stop them.
1848 was a crazy year. A wave of revolutions sprung up all over the continent from Italy to France to Germany, and even Austria. There are three main reasons why: general discontent with the government, the rise of liberalism, and nationalism created by Napoleon.
Bad harvests and an economic depression that led to unemployment had been building up discontent for years. Discontent with the government’s laid-back attitude and desire to maintain the status quo also frustrated the people, especially France, who saw a king on the throne immediately after Napoleon. 👑
Then, the rise of liberalism further encouraged the people to revolt. It didn’t matter whether they were angry at a lack of voting rights, working conditions, quality of life, education, or social stratification. The people believed that their problems were all due to the government and their lack of reform.
Finally, Napoleon’s occupation of numerous countries had created a newfound sense of unity. Known as nationalism, the citizens of a nation began to be extremely proud of their country and desired internal unification. Whatever status quo the Concert of Europe was maintaining, it was destroyed in 1848.
Revolutions of 1848
Image Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons
During this time, Russia was also going through a period of reform. They may have been one of the major powers during the Congress of Vienna, but their leader after Tsar Alexander I, and Tsar Nicholas I, was Alexander II. Alexander II was one of the most liberal tsars Russia had ever had, and his attempts at reform would be followed by Pyotr Stolypin and Sergei Witte.
Image Courtesy of Wikimedia
Alexander II became the tsar in 1855 and was best known for his great reforms in all areas of Russian life from financial to educational. His program came to be known as the Great Reforms, and the most significant of these was his emancipation of the serfs in 1861. This effectively ended serfdom in Russia. His successor, Alexander III, would create the Trans-Siberian railroad which did wonders for the large and non-industrialized nation.
After Alexander’s assassination, the next reformer was Pyotr Stolypin. He modernized agriculture 🌾 in Russia which was especially helpful for the serfs who were now free, and this modernization sought to lessen peasant radicalism as well.
Sergei Witte was best known for managing the industrialization of Russia which created jobs for the people. He managed railroads, and after the Russian Revolution of 1905, he wrote the October Manifesto to placate discontented citizens. ✊🏽
All of these reforms would end up giving the people more rights and freedoms. This would inspire more desires for reform, but when Tsar Nicholas II comes in power, he’s going to restrict these rights which will anger the people and lead to a massive revolution. ☭☭ Soviet Union coming soon!
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