🚀 Thematic Guides
Theme 1 (NAT) - American and National Identity
Theme 2 (WXT) - Work, Exchange, and Technology
Theme 3 (GEO) - Geography and The Environment
Theme 4 (MIG) - Migration and Settlement
Theme 5 (PCE) - Politics and Power
Theme 7 (ARC) - American and Regional Culture
Theme 8 (SOC): Social Structures
🌽 Unit 1: 1491-1607
1.1Context: European Encounters in the Americas
1.6Cultural Interactions Between Europeans, Native Americans, and Africans
🦃 Unit 2: 1607-1754
2.0Unit 2 Overview: Contextualization
2.3The Regions of the British Colonies
2.5Interactions between Native Americans and Europeans
2.6Slavery in the Colonies
🔫 Unit 3: 1754-1800
3.6The Influence of Revolutionary Ideals
3.10Shaping a New Republic
🐎 Unit 4: 1800-1848
4.2The Rise of Political Parties and the Era of Jefferson
4.3Politics and Regional Interests
4.8Jackson and Federal Power
4.9The Development of an American Culture
4.10The Second Great Awakening
4.11the age of reform
4.12African Americans in the Early Republic
💣 Unit 5: 1844-1877
5.5Sectional Conflict: Regional Differences
5.6Failure of Compromise
5.7Election of 1860 and Secession
5.9Government Policies during the Civil War
🚂 Unit 6: 1865-1898
6.2Westward Expansion: Economic Development
6.3Westward Expansion Social and Cultural Development
6.6The Rise of Industrial Capitalism
6.7Labor in the Gilded Age
6.9Responses to Immigration
🌎 Unit 7: 1890-1945
7.0Unit 7 Overview: Contextualization
7.3The Spanish-American War
7.5World War I: Military and Diplomacy
7.6World War I: Home Front
7.81920s: Cultural and Political Controversies
7.9The Great Depression
7.10The New Deal
7.11Interwar Foreign Policy
7.12World War II: Mobilization
🥶 Unit 8: 1945-1980
8.2The Cold War from 1945-1980
8.3The Red Scare
8.4Economy after 1945
8.6Early Steps in the Civil Rights Movement
8.7America as a World Power
8.8The Vietnam War
8.10The African American Civil Rights Movement
8.11The Expansion of the Civil Rights Movement
📲 Unit 9: 1980-Present
9.0Unit 9 Overview: Contextualization
9.2Reagan and Conservatism
9.3The End of the Cold War
9.6Challenges of the 21st Century
🧐 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
📋 Short Answer Questions (SAQ)
⏱️ 5 min read
March 15, 2020
In the 1890s, American public opinion was being swept by a growing wave of jingoism – an intense form of nationalism calling for an aggressive foreign policy.
Because the US saw Latin America and the Caribbean as its zone of authority (Monroe Doctrine, anyone?), the US was growing increasingly uneasy about the Cuban rebellion against the Spanish. Cuba was close to Florida and a frequent target of covetous businessmen who envied its agricultural production of sugar and other tropical crops.
A Cuban rebellion formed against the Spanish, which began to sabotage and laying waste to Cuban plantations. They used a hit and run scorched earth policy to force the Spanish to leave. They hoped to either force Spain’s withdrawal or pull in the US as an ally. In response, Spain sent autocratic General Valeriano Wyler and over troops to crush the revolt.
He was relentless and brutal. He gave the rebels 10 days to lay down their arms.He then put into effect a “Reconcentration” policy designed to move the native people into camps. In these areas, Cubans died by the thousands, victims of unsanitary conditions, overcrowding and disease. He forced civilians into armed camps, where tens of thousands died of starvation and disease, and gained him the title of “The Butcher” in the American press.
To keep an eye on the Spanish, President William McKinley sent the battleship USS Maine to Havana harbor (Cuba’s capital city). While it was docked there, it blew up during the night. Although investigations decades later suggest it was likely an accident, the US blamed Spain, aided by war fever whipped up by Yellow Journalism, which refers to the use of exaggerated or falsified news stories aimed at increasing circulation of newspapers.
Image Courtesy of Wikimedia
The US war cry was “Remember the Maine; to hell with Spain!” Pro-imperialists like Theodore Roosevelt also cried for war, citing the Maine incident as an excuse to pursue the agenda they’d wanted all along.
On Feb 9, 1898, the New York Journal published a letter stolen from Enrique Dupuy de Lome, the Spanish Ambassador in Washington. In the letter (private correspondence to a friend) he called McKinley weak and a would-be politician. Many Americans were angered.
Following the sinking of the Maine, McKinley issued an ultimatum to Spain demanding that it agree to a ceasefire in Cuba. Spain agreed to this demand, but US newspapers and a majority in Congress kept clamoring for war.
McKinley yielded to public pressure and sent a war message to Congress. He offered four reasons for the US to intervene in the Cuban revolution on behalf of the rebels.
Put an end of the starvation and horrible miseries in Cuba
Protect the lives and property of US citizens living in Cuba
End the serious injury to the commerce, trade, and business of the American people.
End the constant menace of peace arising from disorder in Cuba.
Responding to the president's message, Congress passed a joint resolution on April 20 authorizing war. Part of the resolution was the Teller Amendment, which declared that the US had no intention of taking political control of Cuba and that, once peace was restored to the island, the Cuban people would control their own government.
The US then took over a few islands in the Pacific and Caribbean, the most notable being the Philippines, Guam, Cuba, and Puerto Rico. The US also took over Hawaii for good measure since it was a source of sugar, pineapple, and another coaling station on the way to the Philippines. The Philippines themselves were a handy coaling station and stop on the way to China, a potentially huge market into which US producers were eager to get involved.
The Filipino nationalists that had partnered with the US to defeat the Spanish wanted independence, but the US (super patronizingly) didn’t think they were ready for self-rule, and pretty soon fighting broke out. The Filipino-American War officially lasted until 1902 and took the lives of thousands of soldiers and civilians on both sides.
The Filipinos used guerilla tactics to resist the better-equipped US military, so the US responded with horrific tactics including a early version of water-boarding and anti-civilians measures that killed upwards of 200,000 people. It was a nasty war that showcased the worst downsides of US imperialism. (Think overseas Indian wars)
Once the US had control over Hawaii and the Philippines, it became increasingly active in Asia, including engaging with China through helping other European powers put down the anti-Western Boxer Rebellion in 1899. The US also supported the so-called Open Door policy in China so that countries like the US were free to trade with China without interference from European powers.
In the Caribbean and Latin America, the US began to assert its dominance much more heavily after the war. When Theodore Roosevelt was president--1901-1909--he came up with the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, which stated that not only should Europe stay out of the Western Hemisphere, but also that the US had the right to intervene if countries misbehaved as a way to prevent European intervention from becoming necessary.
A group of Japanese investors wanted to buy a large part of Mexico’s Baja Peninsula, extending south of California. Fearing that the Japanese government was scheming to secretly acquire the land, Lodge introduced, and the Senate agreed in 1912, a resolution known as the Lodge Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. It stated that non-European powers (such as Japan) would be excluded from owning territory in the Western Hemisphere.
Roosevelt’s Big Stick Diplomacy
Teddy Roosevelt had once said that is was his motto to “speak softly and carry a big stick”. He built the reputation of the US as a world power and imperialists applauded his every move.
Taft’s Dollar Diplomacy
Taft depended more on investors’ dollars than on the navy’s battleships. His policy of promoting US trade by supporting American enterprises abroad was known as dollar diplomacy.
Wilson’s Moral Diplomacy
Wilson pushed for a moral approach to foreign affairs. He opposed imperialism and the big stick and dollar diplomacy policies of his Republican predecessors. Wilson believed in a principled, ethical world where militarism, colonialism and war were brought under control.
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