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5.9 Government Policies during the Civil War

#period5

#emancipationproclamation

#civilwar

#conscription

#copperheads

⏱️  2 min read

written by

Caleb Lagerwey

caleb lagerwey


Opposition to the War

Both sides introduced a draft (conscription) that produced a backlash on the homefront from those opposed to the war or to forcing people to join the war.

  • Copperheads/Peace Democrats opposed the war in the North

  • The New York Draft Riots were an example of opposition to the war in the North (NYC was a Democrat stronghold)

  • Bread riots erupted in Southern cities because of a lack of food and other supplies

Don’t forget that Lincoln had to run for reelection in 1864: he narrowly beat the Democratic candidate, former General George B. McClellan, who drew strength from opposition to Lincoln’s aggressive tactics to the length of the war, to the draft, and to fighting for African Americans.

Lincoln & the Border States

Lincoln declared martial law (military rule) and suspended habeas corpus (the right to have a trial so you know what you’re charged with) in order to keep the border states in the Union

  • Border States (MO, KY, MD, & DE; in yellow at right) were slave states that stayed loyal to the Union

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7b/US_Secession_map_1861.svg

Image Courtesy of Wikimedia

Emancipation Proclamation

Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation freed slaves in areas in rebellion, so no slaves were immediately freed since those areas were not listening to him. It also didn’t apply to border states to keep them loyal.

  • This leads to the reframing of the war goals: the goals are now emancipation and preserving the Union

  • Enslaved people ran away to Union lines and thus freed themselves

  • Leads to African Americans in the Union Army (ex: 54th Massachusetts)

🎥Watch: AP US History - The Civil War

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