📚

All Subjects

 > 

🇺🇸 

Apush

 > 

🌽

Unit 1

1.2 Native American Societies Before European Contact

3 min readoctober 20, 2020

william538251

Will Pulgarin


Native Societies Before Europeans

https://firebasestorage.googleapis.com/v0/b/fiveable-92889.appspot.com/o/images%2Ftestcrop2.jpg?alt=media&token=33fedc57-cfec-458a-a906-ce9a18d03a72

Native peoples in the Southwest began constructing these highly defensible cliff dwellings in 1190 CE and continued expanding and refurbishing them until 1260 CE before abandoning them around 1300 CE. Andreas F. Borchert, Mesa Verde National Park Cliff Palace. Wikimedia. Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Germany.

The marker of 1491 serves a division between the Native American world and the world that came after European exploration, colonization, and invasion. In 1491, both North and South America were inhabited by flourishing, and highly complex civilizations. In particular, North America was home to hundreds of tribes, cities and societies. First Nations Peoples in North America are often grouped by similarities in their adaptations to the environments (desert vs arctic vs woodland societies).
Indigenous societies to North America before Europeans were vastly more complex than College Board requires for the exam, which focuses on the major tribes and societies within 7 identified geographical areas and some basic components of their lifestyles. The intricacies missing from this curriculum are political, social, and cultural. What were the languages spoken and where were the regional trade centers? How were conflicts resolved among different societies and what were those conflicts? While some of these details are lost to history due to the events that unfold on this continent after contact with Europeans, there are many, many more histories that are still preserved by Indigenous People today, even if they are not covered in the APUSH curriculum.
The major groups and regions of First Nations Peoples to know for AP US History are:
Geographical Area
Arctic and Subarctic
Northwest Coast and California
Plateau
Great Basin
Southwest
Northeast (Eastern Woodlands)
Southeast
Great Plains
Major Tribes
Eskimo and Cree
Tlingit, Chinook, Coos, & Chumash
Nez Perce
Shoshone
Apache, Navajo, and Pueblo
Iroquois, Mohawk
Cherokee, Seminole
Sioux, Cheyenne
Housing
Igloos
Wooden houses; often sheltering several relating families
Bison-high teepees; rounded homes of wood
Cone-shaped huts built with wooden poles, covered with dried grasses and brush.
Built homes on the ledges of Mesa Verde
Mound builders for burial
Reed and bark huts. 
Teepees
Food Supply
Hunting and fishing.
Whales and other sea mammals; salmon
Salmon (fish)
Rabbits, snakes, birds, nuts, and insects
Corn, beans, and squash
Deer; corn, beans, squash, tobacco
Tobacco, squash, melon s, cabbage, peas, and corn
Bison; wild edible plants and roots
Clothing & Tools
Waterproof clothing and blankets; Tools made from bone and teeth
Animal skin clothing; had spoons, masks, and totem pools
Deerskin clothing and robes of rabbit skin; Bows and arrows, spears, knives
Women wore strips of bark, sandals, and fur; baskets
Not stated
Clothing not stated; used forest to make tools, homes, fuel, and food
Clothing not stated; bows and arrows, blow guns, and traps
Bison fur; dogs were used to carry supplies.
Present-Day
Canada and Greenland
Canada, California, Washington, and Oregon
Oregon, California, Idaho, and Canada
Nevada, California, Arizona, Utah, Idaho, Oregon
Mexico, Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, and Colorado
Stretched from New England to Gulf of Mexico
Texas to West Virginia, down to Florida
Mississippi River to Rocky Mountains, from Canada to Texas

Was this guide helpful?

🔍 Are you ready for college apps?
Take this quiz and find out!
Start Quiz
FREE APUSH Survival Pack + Cram Chart PDF
Sign up now for instant access to 2 amazing downloads to help you get a 5
Browse Study Guides By Unit
📆
Big Reviews: Finals & Exam Prep
📑
Document Based Questions (DBQ)
✍️
Exam Skills (MC, SAQ, LEQ, DBQ)
🧐
Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
🚀
Thematic Guides
🦃
Unit 2: Colonization of North America (1607-1754)
🔫
Unit 3: Conflict and American Independence (1754-1800)
🐎
Unit 4: Beginnings of Modern American Democracy (1800-1848)
💣
Unit 5: Toward the Civil War and Reconstruction (1844-1877)
🚂
Unit 6: The Industrial Revolution (1865-1898)
🌎
Unit 7: The Early 20th Century (1890-1945)
🥶
Unit 8: The Postwar Period and Cold War (1945-1980)
📲
Unit 9: Entering into the 21st Century (1980-Present)
Join us on Discord
Thousands of students are studying with us for the AP US History exam.
join now
Play this on HyperTyper
Practice your typing skills while reading Native American Societies Before European Contact
Start Game
💪🏽 Are you ready for the APUSH exam?
Take this quiz for a progress check on what you’ve learned this year and get a personalized study plan to grab that 5!
START QUIZ
Hours Logo
Studying with Hours = the ultimate focus mode
Start a free study session
📱 Stressed or struggling and need to talk to someone?
Talk to a trained counselor for free. It's 100% anonymous.
Text FIVEABLE to 741741 to get started.
© 2021 Fiveable, Inc.