Native peoples in the Southwest began constructing these highly defensible cliff dwellings in 1190 CE and continued expanding and refurbishing them until 1260 CE before abandoning them around 1300 CE. Andreas F. Borchert, Mesa Verde National Park Cliff Palace. Wikimedia. Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Germany.
Arctic and Subarctic
Northwest Coast and California
Northeast (Eastern Woodlands)
Eskimo and Cree
Tlingit, Chinook, Coos, & Chumash
Apache, Navajo, and Pueblo
Wooden houses; often sheltering several relating families
Bison-high teepees; rounded homes of wood
Cone-shaped huts built with wooden poles, covered with dried grasses and brush.
Built homes on the ledges of Mesa Verde
Mound builders for burial
Reed and bark huts.
Hunting and fishing.
Whales and other sea mammals; salmon
Rabbits, snakes, birds, nuts, and insects
Corn, beans, and squash
Deer; corn, beans, squash, tobacco
Tobacco, squash, melon s, cabbage, peas, and corn
Bison; wild edible plants and roots
Clothing & Tools
Waterproof clothing and blankets; Tools made from bone and teeth
Animal skin clothing; had spoons, masks, and totem pools
Deerskin clothing and robes of rabbit skin; Bows and arrows, spears, knives
Women wore strips of bark, sandals, and fur; baskets
Clothing not stated; used forest to make tools, homes, fuel, and food
Clothing not stated; bows and arrows, blow guns, and traps
Bison fur; dogs were used to carry supplies.
Canada and Greenland
Canada, California, Washington, and Oregon
Oregon, California, Idaho, and Canada
Nevada, California, Arizona, Utah, Idaho, Oregon
Mexico, Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, and Colorado
Stretched from New England to Gulf of Mexico
Texas to West Virginia, down to Florida
Mississippi River to Rocky Mountains, from Canada to Texas