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APUSH study guides

🚀  Thematic Guides

🐎  Unit 4: 1800-1848

🌎  Unit 7: 1890-1945

🥶  Unit 8: 1945-1980

📲  Unit 9: 1980-Present

📋  Short Answer Questions (SAQ)

3.12 Movement in the Early Republic

#immigration

#french&indianwar

#treatyofparisin1763

#pontiac'srebellion

#proclamationof1763

⏱️  3 min read

written by

james glackin


Immigration contributed to the increased population in America from 1750-1800. Immigration to America and migrations within the colonies caused conflict between European immigrants, Britain, Native Americans and black Africans.

European Immigrants

Many Europeans flocked to America because of political oppression, economic problems, war and religious persecution. The main sources of immigration came from England, Germany and Ireland. Other groups, such as the Dutch, Swiss and French, would occupy the eastern coast of the colonies.

The Germans would move to the backcountry of the colonies, especially Pennsylvania, New York and the Carolinas. Here, they could practice their language, farming and German customs independently.

The Scots-Irish came from Northern Ireland by way of Scotland. Because the Germans and Quakers had taken land, the Scot-Irish had to move further west against the Appalachian Mountains in Pennsylvania. They would also move into the western parts of the South, where they would fight against both Native Americans and white settlers over land and squatting rights.

Native Americans

The French and Indian War pitted the Iroquois and their British allies against the Hurons and their French allies.  During the French and Indian War and the Revolutionary War, some of the tribes could play the European powers against each other. However, the Treaty of Paris in 1763 hurt the Iroquois, Creeks and other tribes and gave Britain control of lands east of the Mississippi.

The Ottawa Chief named Pontiac led a prolonged fight against British forts in the Ohio Valley in 1763, where the Native Americans killed two thousand colonial frontiersmen. The British would retaliate with brutal tactics and win the fight.

A major turning point happened in 1763 when Britain passed the Proclamation Act of 1763. This law prohibited any settlers from migrating across the Appalachian Mountains. It was intended to prevent any future conflicts between white settlers and the Native Americans. The white colonists defied this law and migrated west in large numbers.

Black Africans and Slavery 

Nathaniel Bacon’s rebellion against Virginia’s elite landowners in 1676 forced white plantation owners to look away from white indentured servants and towards black Africa for free labor in their cotton, tobacco, and rice fields.  Black Africans were forced in chains to cross the Atlantic Ocean in horrible slave ships in large numbers after 1700. By 1775, one in five people in the colonies were black, with many of them slaves in the South.

After the Revolutionary War, many colonists liked the idea of equality and were against gaining wealth through heredity. Some northern states abolished slavery and Congress arranged for a future without slave trading. However, the new Constitution did not address the problem of slavery because of the fear of internal conflict for a new republic.

Eli Whitney’s cotton gin in 1793 would increase the demand for black slave labor. As a result, a sharp divide would continue between the North and the South over slavery.

🎥 Watch: AP US History - Election of 1800

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