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🙏 Free Reviews 2020
🗺 Unit 1: Thinking Geographically
1.1Introduction to Maps and Types of Maps
1.5Humans and Environmental Interaction
👪 Unit 2: Population & Migration
2.0Unit 2 Overview: Population and Migration Patterns and Processes
2.5The Demographic Transition Model
2.6Malthusian Theory and Geography
2.10Push and Pull Factors in Migration
🕌 Unit 3: Cultural Patterns & Processes
3.1Introduction to Culture
3.4Types of Cultural Diffusion
3.7Diffusion of Religion and Language
🗳 Unit 4: Political Patterns & Processes
👨🌾 Unit 5: Agriculture & Rural Land-Use
5.0Unit 5 Overview: Agriculture and Rural Land-Use Patterns and Processes
5.1Introduction to Agriculture
5.2Settlement Patterns and Survey Methods
5.3Agricultural Origins and Diffusions
5.6Agricultural Production Regions
5.7Spatial Organization of Agriculture
5.9The Global System of Agriculture
5.10Consequences of Agricultural Practices
5.11Challenges of Contemporary Agriculture
🌇 Unit 6: Cities & Urban Land-Use
6.2Cities Across the World
6.4The Size and Distribution of Cities
6.5The Internal Structure of Cities
💸 Unit 7: Industrial & Economic Development
7.0Unit 7 Overview: Industrial and Economic Development Patterns and Processes
7.3Measures of Development
7.4Women and Economic Development
7.5Theories of Development
🧐 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
Human Geography Multiple Choice Questions
AP Human Geography Multiple Choice Help (MCQ)
✍️ Free Response Questions (FRQ)
⏱️ 2 min read
June 2, 2020
The location and quality of a city’s infrastructure directly affects its spatial patterns of economic and social development.
Economic development and interconnection within urban areas are dependent upon the location and quality of infrastructure (for example, public transportation, airports, roads, communication systems, water and sewer systems). The fastest growing cities are found in developing countries which have just recently just industrialized. While residents in both New York City & Moscow have an elaborate airport, road, water, and communication systems, these rapidly growing cities are having issues keeping up with the demands of population increases. The below picture is of one of the elaborate and most well-maintained subway stations in the city of Moscow.
Source: Moscow Subway System
In developing countries, modern technologies in transportation and public facilities are not very available. While all cities in developing countries are different culturally, most share a few similarities other than not being able to keep up with these public services and infrastructure. Secondly, some are ancient, but almost all have a colonial legacy, established to serve the needs of the colonizing country. Third, many of these cities have a large number of migrants illegally living on the outskirts of the city, called squatter‐settlements, and finally, some governments have responded by moving the national capital away from the overcrowded primate city to a new location. This action is called forward capitals.
Examples of forward capitals are moving the capital of Dar Es Salaam to Dodoma in Tanzania, Brasilia in Brazil and Abuja in Nigeria. These planned cities are created to draw the population away from overgrown metropolises and to house industrial and governmental centers. This is a form of smart growth which you will see in the next section of this study guide.
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