👋🏼 Hi, I’m Jerry Kosoff from Atlanta, GA! I’m an AP Stats teacher and streamer at Fiveable. This year’s exam is different than we expected, but I’m here to help. I’ve put together this study guide to help keep you on track while you are studying from home. You can follow this guide on your own with a free Fiveable account! I’ll also be joining a group of students live on Mondays @ 9pm ET during cram sessions. Pick up your cram pass to join us.
Format of the New Exam
This year, the AP Statistics exam will look different than you were expecting. As we’re all on quarantine 😷 due to COVID19, the College Board has decided to update the format and content of the test to fit an online testing format.
You’ll have 45minutes to take the exam online and it will only cover units 17. If you have already studied content from unit 8 or 9, don’t stress! It’s all worth knowing.
These units are on the exam. Click the unit to see the study guide! (new unit guides coming soon!)
1 – 👆 Exploring OneVariable Data
2 – ✌️ Exploring TwoVariable Data
3 – 🔎 Collecting Data
4 – 🎲 Probability & Random Variables
5 – 📊 Sampling Distributions
6 – ⚖️ Inference for Categorical Data – Proportions
7 – 😼 Inference for Quantitative Data – Means
Not on the exam:
8 – ✳️ Inference for Categorical Data – ChiSquare
9 – 📈 Inference for Quantitative Data – Slopes
What will be on the test?
 Q1 – multifocused FRQ
 25 minutes, worth 55% of your score
 May cover 2 or more units
 Q1 – multifocused FRQ
 15 minutes, worth 45% of your score
 May cover 2 or more units
 Other info:
 There will not be an Investigative Task
 You should print or keep open the AP Statistics Formula Sheet
 Calculators are allowed, but not required.
When is the exam and how do I take it?
May 22 @ 2p Eastern! Wherever you are in the world, this is the time you’ll take the test. Unless you have been approved for the makeup date in June, but only your school can request that. You’ll take the test online. There will be a practice simulation posted by College Board within the next few weeks.
How do I prepare for the exam?
With so many school closures and the stress of a global pandemic, this review season will be different than usual. If this is your first AP exam, welcome! Don’t worry, it’s not usually this chaotic.
We’ve put together this plan for you to follow between now and May. This will cover all of the units and leave you time to practice questions before test day. Some classes may have done units out of chronological order throughout the year, which is ok. The units don’t have to be taught in order. If you are learning new material on your own and need some help, use the chat bubble on http://fiveable.me. We’ll answer any questions you may have.
What resources does this study plan use?
All of the required resources are free, including the AP stats cheat sheet. You’ll need to create a free Fiveable account to jump in. We’ve also linked a few other websites, articles, and YouTube videos that you can access for free. Some of the suggested resources include paid products. There are some documentaries that you can find on streaming sites with a paid membership and we’ll also list streams and practice questions that require a paid cram pass on Fiveable.
PREWORK: SETUP YOUR STUDY ENVIRONMENT
Before we begin, take some time to get organized. Remote learning can be great, but it also means you’ll need to hold yourself accountable more than usual.
🖥 Create a study space.
Make sure you have a designated place at home to study. Somewhere you can keep all of your materials, where you can focus on learning, and where you are comfortable. Spend some time prepping the space with everything you need and you can even let others in the family know that this is your study space. Claim your territory by printing out and posting your AP stats cheat sheet PDFs! We at Fiveable don’t love that term, but our creators have lovingly crafted these 1 page cram charts.
📚 Organize your study materials.
Get your notebook, textbook, prep books, or whatever other physical materials you have. Also create a space for you to keep track of review. Start a new section in your notebook to take notes or start a Google Doc to keep track of your notes. Get your self set up!
📅 Plan designated times for studying.
The hardest part about studying from home is sticking to a routine. Decide on one hour every day that you can dedicate to studying. This can be any time of the day, whatever works best for you. Set a timer on your phone for that time and really try to stick to it. The routine will help you stay on track.
🏆 Decide on an accountability plan.
How will you hold yourself accountable to this study plan? You may or may not have a teacher or rules set up to help you stay on track, so you need to set some for yourself. First set your goal. This could be studying for x number of hours or getting through a unit. Then, create a reward for yourself. If you reach your goal, then x. This will help stay focused!
👆 UNIT 1: Exploring OneVariable Data
🌶 Join the live cram stream with Jerry Kossoff. Get your cram pass now.
Big takeaways:
Unit 1 is about creating and analyzing graphs of data. This includes both categorical and quantitative data. For categorical data, we should be able to read and create tables and bar graphs, and calculate proportions/percentages. For quantitative data, we should be able to read and create dotplots, stemplots, histograms, and boxplots. We should also be able to describe the shape, center, variability (spread), and any unusual features of a distribution of quantitative data. This includes making calculations such as mean, median, range, interquartile range (IQR), and standard deviation. Our descriptions and calculations can be used to compare data from multiple groups. Finally, Unit 1 ends with describing the position of individuals within a quantitative data set, including using percentiles and zscores. This leads us to an initial exploration of the Normal Distribution, though we will study that more indepth in Units 45.
Definitely do this:
 🎥 Watch these videos from the Fiveable archives:
 Analyzing Categorical Variables: An intro to some key terms and graphs (use first 15 minutes)
 Graphing & Analyzing Quantitative Variables: The types of graphs you need to know!
 Describing Data in a Distribution: A breakdown of percentile a cumulative graphs
 Normal Distributions: A good intro to all things Normal!
 📰 Check out these articles:
 Relative Dominance: A reallife example of how zscores can help compare individuals from different distributions, using golfers (source: Grantland)
 ✍️ Practice:
 Practice an APStyle Problem: check out this post and practice your freeresponse skills!
If you have more time or want to dig deeper:
 💎 Check out some online applets:
 Mean vs. Median interactive applet: Play with this applet to get a sense of how changing different data values impacts the mean and median
 Normal Distribution applet: A visual of the Standard Normal Curve. Update the mean and standard deviation to look at any data set.
✌️ UNIT 2: Exploring TwoVariable Data
🌶 Join the live cram stream with Jerry Kossoff. Get your cram pass now.
Big takeaways:
Unit 2 is about creating and analyzing graphs of data when two variables are measured about each individual in a data set. For categorical data, we should be able to read and create twoway tables or segmented bar graphs, and calculate conditional percentages. These can be used to comment on the association (or lack thereof) between the two variables. For quantitative data, we should be able to read, create, and describe scatterplots, which can also be used to comment on apparent association between two variables.
The second half of Unit 2 is then focused on linear regression, a process by which we can make predictions about one quantitative variable (a response variable) using another (an explanatory variable). We should be able to use LeastSquares Regression Lines to make these predictions, and interpret several components of the LSRLs (including slope, intercept, and other calculated values such as s or r2)
Looking for Resources?
 🎥 Watch these videos from the Fiveable archives:
 Analyzing Categorical Variables: Start at 14:38 for an example of twoway tables and stay for segmented bar graphs
 Describing Scatterplots & Association: How to describe the direction, strength, and form of an association, as well as an introduction to the correlation coefficient r
 Using LeastSquares Regression Lines: How to make predictions from regression lines and calculating residuals
 Advanced Linear Regression: Interpreting “s”, “r2”, and reading computer outputs of regression data
 ✍️ Practice:
 Practice an APStyle Problem: check out this post and practice your freeresponse skills!
If you have more time or want to dig deeper:
 🌶 Join the live cram stream for unit 2. Get your cram pass now.
 💎 Check out some online applets:
 LeastSquares Regression: Try to guess the leastsquares regression line from a scatterplot of data
 😀 Just for fun!

 Spurious Correlations: Data sets with very high “r” values that… well… you’ll see… [Source: Tyler Vigen]

🔎 UNIT 3: Collecting Data
🌶 Join the live cram stream with Jerry Kossoff. Get your cram pass now.
Big takeaways:
While Units 12 were about graphing and analyzing sets of data, Unit 3 is about examining the methods through which we can collect that data. For sample surveys, we should be able to describe various methods of selecting samples, particularly the random methods (simple random, stratified random, cluster, and systematic samples). However, not all samples are collected through a random process, and we should be prepared to discuss possible sources of bias in surveys (including via nonrandom selection processes).
We then turn to the differences between observational studies and experiments, and the features of a welldesigned experiment. We should be able to define many common terms associated with experiments (many of which you’ve likely seen in other courses!), and compare and contrast several common experimental designs: completely randomized design, randomized block design, and matchedpairs design.
Looking for Resources?
 🎥 Watch these videos from the Fiveable archives:
 Sampling Methods and Sources of Bias: A breakdown of the different ways we can take samples, and how to talk about bias on the AP exam.
 Experiments and Observational Studies: All things experiments! Includes a discussion of the possible pitfalls of observational studies (confounding)
 ✍️ Practice:
 APStyle Problem #1: a practice question on surveys and sampling methods.
 APStyle Problem #2: a practice question on observational studies/experiments
🎲 UNIT 4: Probability & Random Variables
🌶 Join the live cram stream with Jerry Kossoff. Get your cram pass now.
Big takeaways:
Unit 4 is where AP Statistics gets “mathy,” with lots of calculations and formulas. We are asked to calculate or interpret probabilities in a variety of settings, beginning with the understanding that probability reflects what we should expect to occur over the long run. We should be able to design and execute simulations for a given scenario – and then the calculations begin. We should be able to calculate the probability of multiple events using a variety of strategies (including TwoWay Tables, Tree Diagrams, and/or Venn Diagrams).
We should also be able to categorize different events as “mutually exclusive” or “independent,” with justification. Conditional probability [P(A  B)] plays a big role in this part of the unit. Shifting over to random variables, we should be able to calculate the mean (expected value) or standard deviation of a random variable, and combine them using similar rules to Unit 1. We conclude Unit 4 with a look at Binomial and Geometric random variables, which are two special types of variables that arise frequently in applications.
Looking for Resources?
 🎥 Watch these videos from the Fiveable archives:
 Randomness & Simulation: Explore some definitions (and myths) about probability and randomness
 Basic Probability Rules: A breakdown of commonlytested probability rules, using TwoWay Tables for most scenarios
 Random Variables & Binomial/Geometric Distributions: A summary of Random Variable facts & formulas
 📰 Check out these articles:
 Statistics in Court: Incorrect Probabilities: An exploration of the misuse of probability rules in court cases [source: Significance Magazine]
 ✍️ Practice:
 Practice FRQ #1: Some basic probability calculations using a discrete random variable
 Practice FRQ #2: Test your knowledge of binomial scenarios and simulations
 Practice FRQ #3: A scenario involving a twoway table
If you have more time or want to dig deeper:
 💎 Check out some online applets:
 Dice & The Law of Large Numbers: Play with this applet to get a sense of how probability works over the “long run”
 Coin Flips: A similar applet using coin flips
📊 UNIT 5: Sampling Distributions
🌶 Join the live cram stream with Jerry Kossoff. Get your cram pass now.
Big takeaways:
Unit 5 provides the bridge from descriptive statistics (Units 14) to inferential statistics (Units 69). After reviewing the Normal Distribution and introducing the idea of using sample statistics (like p or x) to estimate population parameters (like p or ), we explore the creation of sampling distributions.
We meet the conditions for inference: random samples, large samples (for categorical variables, we need at least 10 expected successes and failures; for quantitative variables, we need n to be at least 30), and independent observations (which turns into the “10% rule” for sampling without replacement: if the sample size n is less than 10% of the population size N, we can do calculations as if we sampled with replacement).
If these conditions are met, the sampling distribution we build will be approximately Normal and all of our formulas for calculating mean and standard deviation of sampling distributions on the formula sheet will hold. We then build sampling distributions for sample proportions/sample means and the difference of sample proportions/sample means.
Looking for Resources?
 🎥 Watch these videos from the Fiveable archives:
 Sampling Distributions for Proportions: an intro to vocabulary surrounding sampling distributions, and a simulation using a virtual “candy machine”
 Sampling Distributions for Means: an intro to the building of a sampling distribution for xbar and a summary of the Central Limit Theorem
 ✍️ Practice:
 Unit 5 Practice FRQ: describe a sampling distribution and compute an associated probability
If you have more time or want to dig deeper:
 💎 Check out some online applets:
 The “Candy Machine”: Build a sampling distribution for phat.
 Sampling Distribution for xbar: See the Central Limit Theorem in action! Definitely try to make a “custom” graph to give the population a unique shape.
⚖️ UNIT 6: Inference for Categorical Data (Proportions)
🌶 Join the live cram stream with Jerry Kossoff. Get your cram pass now.
Big takeaways:
Unit 6 is where we meet Confidence Intervals and Hypothesis Tests for the first time, specifically zintervals and ztests for population proportions. After learning “the basics” about confidence intervals (what’s a confidence level? What’s a margin of error?), we construct and interpret 1 and 2sample zintervals.
These intervals, built from samples, can be used to justify claims about a population. Then, after exploring the rationale behind hypothesis tests (including how to write null/alternative hypotheses and interpret a pvalue in context), we run 1 and 2sample ztests. Finally, we meet “Errors”: both Type I (rejecting a true H0) and Type II (failing to reject a false H0), and define the “Power” of a test as the probability of correctly rejecting a false H0. This unit is often heavily tested and is well worth your time to review!
Looking for Resources?
 🎥 Watch these videos from the Fiveable archives:
 Confidence intervals for p: An intro to Confidence Intervals and a breakdown of how to construct and interpret 1sample zintervals.
 Hypothesis Tests for p: An intro to Hypothesis Tests and practice running 1 and 2sample ztests.
 Errors & Power of a Test: A breakdown of the types of errors in hypothesis testing, and how to increase the power of a test.
 📰 Check out these articles:
 Understanding Type I and Type II Errors: A breakdown of the Types of Errors with “boy who cried wolf” examples [Source: William Schmarzo]
 ✍️ Practice:
 Unit 6 Practice FRQ #1: Test your knowledge about Confidence Intervals!
 Unit 6 Practice FRQ #2: “Convincing Statistical Evidence that…”
If you have more time or want to dig deeper:
 💎 Check out some online applets:
 Confidence Intervals for p: play with the population parameters and see what we mean by “confidence level”
 Reasoning of a Hypothesis Test: demonstrates the idea of Hypothesis Testing using basketball freethrows.
😼 UNIT 7: Inference for Quantitative Data (Means)
🌶 Join the live cram stream with Jerry Kossoff. Get your cram pass now.
Big takeaways:
Unit 7 is an extension of Unit 6: we basically do everything again, but with tprocedures instead of zprocedures! We build Confidence Intervals and run Hypothesis Tests for a population mean or a difference of population means.
For the difference of population means, we must be able to distinguish between if we are running a 2sample procedure or a matchedpairs procedure (in which we will use a 1sample procedure to execute the process).
Looking for Resources?
 🎥 Watch these videos from the Fiveable archives:
 Confidence Intervals for Mu: An refresher on Confidence Intervals and a breakdown of the tdistribution
 Hypothesis Tests for Mu: Lots of good FRQ practice
 Errors & Power of a Test: A breakdown of the types of errors in hypothesis testing, and how to increase the power of a test. (same as from Unit 6)
 Review of z and t procedures: A (mostly) comprehensive review of Units 6 and 7. Great for lastminute preparations!
 ✍️ Practice:
 Unit 7 Practice FRQ #1: should we shut down the production line?
 Unit 7 Practice FRQ #2: which type of test should we run?
If you have more time or want to dig deeper:
 💎 Check out some online applets:
 Confidence Intervals for Mu: play with the population parameters and see what we mean by “confidence level”
 Statistical Power: Explore how “Power” of a test is impacted by various inputs
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