✍️ Free Response Questions (FRQs)
👆 Unit 1 - Exploring One-Variable Data
1.4Representing a Categorical Variable with Graphs
1.5Representing a Quantitative Variable with Graphs
1.6Describing the Distribution of a Quantitative Variable
1.7Summary Statistics for a Quantitative Variable
1.8Graphical Representations of Summary Statistics
1.9Comparing Distributions of a Quantitative Variable
✌️ Unit 2 - Exploring Two-Variable Data
2.0 Unit 2 Overview: Exploring Two-Variable Data
2.1Introducing Statistics: Are Variables Related?
2.2Representing Two Categorical Variables
2.3Statistics for Two Categorical Variables
2.4Representing the Relationship Between Two Quantitative Variables
2.8Least Squares Regression
🔎 Unit 3 - Collecting Data
3.5Introduction to Experimental Design
🎲 Unit 4 - Probability, Random Variables, and Probability Distributions
4.1Introducing Statistics: Random and Non-Random Patterns?
4.7Introduction to Random Variables and Probability Distributions
4.8Mean and Standard Deviation of Random Variables
4.9Combining Random Variables
4.11Parameters for a Binomial Distribution
📊 Unit 5 - Sampling Distributions
5.0Unit 5 Overview: Sampling Distributions
5.1Introducing Statistics: Why Is My Sample Not Like Yours?
5.4Biased and Unbiased Point Estimates
5.6Sampling Distributions for Differences in Sample Proportions
⚖️ Unit 6 - Inference for Categorical Data: Proportions
6.0Unit 6 Overview: Inference for Categorical Data: Proportions
6.1Introducing Statistics: Why Be Normal?
6.2Constructing a Confidence Interval for a Population Proportion
6.3Justifying a Claim Based on a Confidence Interval for a Population Proportion
6.4Setting Up a Test for a Population Proportion
6.6Concluding a Test for a Population Proportion
6.7Potential Errors When Performing Tests
6.8Confidence Intervals for the Difference of Two Proportions
6.9Justifying a Claim Based on a Confidence Interval for a Difference of Population Proportions
6.10Setting Up a Test for the Difference of Two Population Proportions
😼 Unit 7 - Inference for Qualitative Data: Means
7.1Introducing Statistics: Should I Worry About Error?
7.2Constructing a Confidence Interval for a Population Mean
7.3Justifying a Claim About a Population Mean Based on a Confidence Interval
7.4Setting Up a Test for a Population Mean
7.5Carrying Out a Test for a Population Mean
7.6Confidence Intervals for the Difference of Two Means
7.7Justifying a Claim About the Difference of Two Means Based on a Confidence Interval
7.8Setting Up a Test for the Difference of Two Population Means
7.9Carrying Out a Test for the Difference of Two Population Means
✳️ Unit 8 Inference for Categorical Data: Chi-Square
📈 Unit 9 - Inference for Quantitative Data: Slopes
🧐 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)
Is AP Statistics Hard? Is AP Statistics Worth Taking?
Best Quizlet Decks for AP Statistics
June 11, 2020
Correlation is when two variables are related to each other, and this is numerically represented with the correlation coefficient, which in stats we denote as r. The correlation coefficient shows the degree to which there is a linear correlation between the two variables, that is, how close the points are to forming a line. It can be positive or negative and this is the same as the direction of the scatterplot. The coefficient takes a value between -1 and 1, where r=-1 means that the points fall exactly on an decreasing line while r=1 means that the points fall exactly on a increasing line. A correlation coefficient of 0 means that there is no correlation between the data points.
Here are some scatterplots and their values of r:
image courtesy of: math.nayland.school.nz
Also, there are a few things to keep in mind about correlation.
Even if r has a high magnitude, the relationship may not be linear, but instead it may be curved. We will discuss this more in later sections.
A high magnitude of correlation does not imply causation.
The correlation coefficient is not resistant to outliers, which makes sense, given that the formula that we shall learn uses the mean and standard deviation, which by themselves are not resistant.
To find the value of r, we have this formula that is found on the formula sheet:
Although this may seem like a complicated formula, it’s not that bad to understand (but harder to compute) To find r, first find the mean and standard deviations of both the x and y variables. Then, for each data point, multiply the x and y z-scores for that point. Finally, add all the individual products up and divide by the number of data points minus 1.
You will seldom need to do this by hand, and most graphing calculators can easily find this. On the most common graphing calculator used in AP Stats (TI-84), you will enter your data into L1 and L2, go to Stats>Calc>LinReg like below:
To be sure that you get the r-value, verify that "Stats Diagnostics" is on via MODE.
🎥Watch: AP Stats - Scatterplots and Association
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