🔎 Unit 1: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.0Unit 1 Overview: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.1Introducing Psychology: The Historical Progression of Psychology
1.2Research Methods in Psychology
1.3The Experimental Method
1.5Statistical Analysis in Psychology
🧠 Unit 2: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.0Unit 2 Overview: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.1Interaction of Heredity and Environment
2.3Overview of the Nervous System and the Neuron
2.7Tools for Examining Brain Structure and Function
2.8The Adaptable Brain: Neural Fluidity
👀 Unit 3: Sensation and Perception
3.0Unit 3 Overview: Sensation and Perception
3.1Principles of Sensation
3.2Principles of Perception
3.5Auditory Sensation and Perception
📚 Unit 4: Learning
4.0Unit 4 Overview: Learning
🤔 Unit 5: Cognitive Psychology
5.0Unit 5 Overview: Cognitive Psychology
5.1Introduction to Memory
5.5Forgetting and Memory Distortion
5.6Biological Bases of Memory
5.7Introduction to Thinking and Problem Solving
5.8Biases and Errors in Thinking
5.9Introduction to Intelligence
5.10Psychometric Principles and Intelligence Testing
👶 Unit 6: Developmental Psychology
6.0Unit 6 Overview: Developmental Psychology
6.1The Lifespan and Physical Development in Childhood
6.2Social Development in Childhood
6.3Cognitive Development in Childhood
6.5Adulthood and Aging
🤪 Unit 7: Motivation, Emotion, & Personality
7.0Unit 7 Overview: Motivation, Emotion, and Personality
7.1Theories of Motivation
7.2Specific Topics in Motivation
7.3Theories of Emotion
7.4Stress and Coping
7.5Introduction to Personality
7.6Psychoanalytic Theories of Personality
7.7Behaviorism and Social Cognitive Theories of Personality
7.8Humanistic Theories of Personality
7.9Trait Theories of Personality
🛋 Unit 8: Clinical Psychology
8.0Unit 8 Overview: Clinical Psychology
8.1Introduction to Psychological Disorders
8.2Psychological Perspectives and Etiology of Disorders
8.3Neurodevelopmental and Schizophrenic Spectrum Disorders
8.4Bipolar, Depressive, Anxiety, and Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders
8.5Trauma- and Stressor Related, Dissociative, and Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders
8.6Feeding and Eating, Substance and Addictive, and Personality Disorders
8.7Introduction to Treatment of Psychological Disorders
8.8Psychological Perspectives and Treatment of Disorders
8.9Treatment of Disorders from the Biological Perspective
👫 Unit 9: Social Psychology
9.0Unit 9 Overview: Social Psychology
9.1Attribution Theory and Person Perception
9.2Attitude Formation and Attitude Change
9.3Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience
9.4Group Influences on Behavior and Mental Processes
9.5Bias, Prejudice, and Discrimination
9.6Altruism and Aggression
🧐 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
✍️ Free Response Questions (FRQ)
⏱️ 4 min read
November 11, 2020
We all have biases, or tendencies to favor one way of thinking over another. These biases stem from the mental concepts that we form throughout our life, and they’re not inherently bad—they help us think quickly and efficiently, develop heuristics, and prevent our consciousness from being clogged up with unnecessary decision-making.
For example, if I asked you whether you prefer chocolate or vanilla ice cream 🍨, you could probably come up with an answer pretty quickly, even though you haven’t actually tasted the ice creams that I’m about to offer you. You are biased toward the ice cream flavor that you love.
While biases can be viewed as a colored lens through which you can make decisions, stereotypes are much more fixed models of thinking, where you classify people into specific categories. The statement “all Asians are smart 💯,” for example, would be a stereotype. While not all stereotypes are directly negative, most stereotypes can be harmful (imagine how you may feel if you are Asian with a learning disability).
Here are some more examples that are actually prejudice, watch what you say!:
👓Men are more intelligent
🚗Women cannot drive
💸Women are in poverty and are uneducated more
👦🏽Sons are more valued than daughters
There are also lots of stereotypes regarding each race. It's awful what the human race can do, even with the way we perceive things.
Image Courtesy of MetroFamily Magazine.
Our social identity is defined by the groups we associate ourselves with. The groups we are part of are our ingroups, while any other groups are outgroups.
Ingroup bias is our tendency to favor our own group as opposed to the outgroup. We tend to perceive more individual differences between members of the ingroup and see everyone in the outgroup as the same (outgroup homogeneity bias).
An example is the cross-race effect: we are better able to recognize faces of our own race (that’s why cross-race lineups are usually weak in court cases).
An example you could relate to is the East coast West coast debate. Students always choose their coast as the one that is "better," and it is generally because that is their ingroup.
Ingroup bias inevitably leads to harmful prejudices, which are unjustifiable and usually negative attitudes toward a group.
Image Courtesy of Study.
Prejudices involve stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and discrimination. They are often completely implicit; most people don't detect they are being harmful and discriminatory.
There are implicit racial associations, patronization, perceptions, and bodily responses.
Ethnocentrism is the prejudicial belief that one’s culture is superior to all other cultures. People tend to justify their culture’s social systems while judging others’ as "bad" or "wrong."
The just-world phenomenon is when people tend to believe that the world is just and people generally get what they deserve. This is why victims of discrimination will often blame themselves and may suffer mental health issues in response to prolonged discrimination.
Scapegoat theory maintains that our prejudices dictate who we blame when we are angry, and negative emotions exacerbate prejudice. For example, there are higher levels of prejudice among people who are struggling financially. After 9/11, a large spike in prejudice against Muslims occurred. There were riots and groups against Muslims; they just simply became the scapegoats in this period of distress. Jews were also seen as scapegoats, but during the Holocaust.
Due to confirmation bias and the availability heuristic, we are more likely to associate and remember vivid or violent cases that confirm our stereotypes. Additionally, hindsight bias can result in victim-blaming.
Even if we don’t admit to it, we all have subtle underlying prejudices that influence our thinking. The important thing to keep in mind is that we shouldn’t let our prejudices lead to discrimination. While prejudice is a thought, discrimination is an action that causes us to treat different people differently, and even cause physical or emotional harm to others.
The mere-exposure effect states that increased exposure to something or someone makes us like them more. This theory can be a step toward resolving harmful prejudices in our society. That’s why it’s so important to have a diverse representation of people in the media.
🎥Watch: AP Psychology—Bystanders, Groups, and Deindividuation
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