🔎 Unit 1: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.0Unit 1 Overview: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.1Introducing Psychology: The Historical Progression of Psychology
1.2Research Methods in Psychology
1.3The Experimental Method
1.5Statistical Analysis in Psychology
🧠 Unit 2: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.0Unit 2 Overview: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.1Interaction of Heredity and Environment
2.3Overview of the Nervous System and the Neuron
2.7Tools for Examining Brain Structure and Function
2.8The Adaptable Brain: Neural Fluidity
👀 Unit 3: Sensation and Perception
3.0Unit 3 Overview: Sensation and Perception
3.1Principles of Sensation
3.2Principles of Perception
3.5Auditory Sensation and Perception
📚 Unit 4: Learning
4.0Unit 4 Overview: Learning
🤔 Unit 5: Cognitive Psychology
5.0Unit 5 Overview: Cognitive Psychology
5.1Introduction to Memory
5.5Forgetting and Memory Distortion
5.6Biological Bases of Memory
5.7Introduction to Thinking and Problem Solving
5.8Biases and Errors in Thinking
5.9Introduction to Intelligence
5.10Psychometric Principles and Intelligence Testing
👶 Unit 6: Developmental Psychology
6.0Unit 6 Overview: Developmental Psychology
6.1The Lifespan and Physical Development in Childhood
6.2Social Development in Childhood
6.3Cognitive Development in Childhood
6.5Adulthood and Aging
🤪 Unit 7: Motivation, Emotion, & Personality
7.0Unit 7 Overview: Motivation, Emotion, and Personality
7.1Theories of Motivation
7.2Specific Topics in Motivation
7.3Theories of Emotion
7.4Stress and Coping
7.5Introduction to Personality
7.6Psychoanalytic Theories of Personality
7.7Behaviorism and Social Cognitive Theories of Personality
7.8Humanistic Theories of Personality
7.9Trait Theories of Personality
🛋 Unit 8: Clinical Psychology
8.0Unit 8 Overview: Clinical Psychology
8.1Introduction to Psychological Disorders
8.2Psychological Perspectives and Etiology of Disorders
8.3Neurodevelopmental and Schizophrenic Spectrum Disorders
8.4Bipolar, Depressive, Anxiety, and Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders
8.5Trauma- and Stressor Related, Dissociative, and Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders
8.6Feeding and Eating, Substance and Addictive, and Personality Disorders
8.7Introduction to Treatment of Psychological Disorders
8.8Psychological Perspectives and Treatment of Disorders
8.9Treatment of Disorders from the Biological Perspective
👫 Unit 9: Social Psychology
9.0Unit 9 Overview: Social Psychology
9.1Attribution Theory and Person Perception
9.2Attitude Formation and Attitude Change
9.3Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience
9.4Group Influences on Behavior and Mental Processes
9.5Bias, Prejudice, and Discrimination
9.6Altruism and Aggression
🧐 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
✍️ Free Response Questions (FRQ)
⏱️ 3 min read
November 11, 2020
Altruism is the unselfish concern for the welfare of others. We are more likely to feel and act altruistic toward a person if:
🥺They seem to need or deserve help
They are in some way similar to us
👩They are a woman
We have just observed someone else being helpful
🕒We are not in a hurry
🚜We are in a small town or rural area
We are not preoccupied
We are feeling guilty
😊We are in a good mood
Due to the bystander effect, when people share responsibility, they are less likely to help (diffusion of responsibility).
Social exchange theory says that our social behavior is based on weighing the costs and benefits of our actions. However, the reciprocity norm and the social responsibility norm lead us to be altruistic even if it doesn’t benefit us.
The reciprocity norm is our expectation that people will help us if we help them 🤝 If someone has helped us in the past, we are more likely to be altruistic toward them.
The social responsibility norm says that we should help those needing our help even if the costs outweigh the benefits.
This especially holds true if they are a woman or a child, since our brains are programmed to feel more empathetic toward them. The social responsibility norm is the reason that people who attend religious services tend to be more altruistic—they feel more connected to the society and thus more responsible for it 🤗
Aggression is any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy.
Our genetics can dictate how aggressive we are. In males, the Y-chromosome directs aggressive behavior, which is one reason why men tend to be more aggressive.
If a head injury enables a neural system that facilitates aggression, we would become more aggressive. This happened with Phineas Gage.
Male hormones like testosterone also direct aggressive impulses.
Alcohol 🍷 can also cause us to act out aggressively, since it triggers increased stimulation in the amygdala and decreases frontal lobe activity.
Experiencing aversive events can cause us to act out aggressively. The frustration-aggression principle states that feeling frustrated or feeling as if someone has wronged you creates anger, which triggers aggressive impulses.
Hot temperatures 🌡️, physical pain, personal insults, foul odors 🤢, cigarette smoke, crowding, etc. can provoke aggressive impulses. That’s why when you notice someone acting “on-edge,” you instinctively try not to frustrate or upset them so as not to trigger their aggression.
If our experience teaches us that aggression is beneficial, we are more likely to be aggressive in the future. If parents give into temper tantrums, for example, we learn that we can use temper tantrums to get what we want 😎
What we see also impacts how aggressive we are. If our parents model violence, we are more likely to be violent as well when we are upset. Social scripts are culturally modeled guides for how to act in certain situations.
Video games 🎮 and violent TV shows 📺 are shown to make kids more violent if kids play them repeatedly, because these games teach us how to act when we encounter frustrating situations in real life.
Do video games lead to violence?
Yes yes yes!! Because of priming, social scripts, and modeling (which you've learned in previous chapters), video games could really lead to an increase in violence in children.
While playing video games, a child or adult is on high alert as their game is hostile and they have to be hostile back. This, then, leads them to see the real world as hostile unconsciously.
This doesn't mean video games are bad! There are some positive effects too (if you're curious . . . faster reaction times, enhanced visual skills, increased sense of control).
Image Courtesy of Jeel Christine de Egurrola.
🎥Watch: AP Psychology—Bystanders, Groups, and Deindividuation
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