🔎 Unit 1: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.0Unit 1 Overview: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.1Introducing Psychology: The Historical Progression of Psychology
1.2Research Methods in Psychology
1.3The Experimental Method
1.5Statistical Analysis in Psychology
🧠 Unit 2: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.0Unit 2 Overview: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.1Interaction of Heredity and Environment
2.3Overview of the Nervous System and the Neuron
2.7Tools for Examining Brain Structure and Function
2.8The Adaptable Brain: Neural Fluidity
👀 Unit 3: Sensation and Perception
3.0Unit 3 Overview: Sensation and Perception
3.1Principles of Sensation
3.2Principles of Perception
3.5Auditory Sensation and Perception
📚 Unit 4: Learning
4.0Unit 4 Overview: Learning
🤔 Unit 5: Cognitive Psychology
5.0Unit 5 Overview: Cognitive Psychology
5.1Introduction to Memory
5.5Forgetting and Memory Distortion
5.6Biological Bases of Memory
5.7Introduction to Thinking and Problem Solving
5.8Biases and Errors in Thinking
5.9Introduction to Intelligence
5.10Psychometric Principles and Intelligence Testing
👶 Unit 6: Developmental Psychology
6.0Unit 6 Overview: Developmental Psychology
6.1The Lifespan and Physical Development in Childhood
6.2Social Development in Childhood
6.3Cognitive Development in Childhood
6.5Adulthood and Aging
🤪 Unit 7: Motivation, Emotion, & Personality
7.0Unit 7 Overview: Motivation, Emotion, and Personality
7.1Theories of Motivation
7.2Specific Topics in Motivation
7.3Theories of Emotion
7.4Stress and Coping
7.5Introduction to Personality
7.6Psychoanalytic Theories of Personality
7.7Behaviorism and Social Cognitive Theories of Personality
7.8Humanistic Theories of Personality
7.9Trait Theories of Personality
🛋 Unit 8: Clinical Psychology
8.0Unit 8 Overview: Clinical Psychology
8.1Introduction to Psychological Disorders
8.2Psychological Perspectives and Etiology of Disorders
8.3Neurodevelopmental and Schizophrenic Spectrum Disorders
8.4Bipolar, Depressive, Anxiety, and Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders
8.5Trauma- and Stressor Related, Dissociative, and Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders
8.6Feeding and Eating, Substance and Addictive, and Personality Disorders
8.7Introduction to Treatment of Psychological Disorders
8.8Psychological Perspectives and Treatment of Disorders
8.9Treatment of Disorders from the Biological Perspective
👫 Unit 9: Social Psychology
9.0Unit 9 Overview: Social Psychology
9.1Attribution Theory and Person Perception
9.2Attitude Formation and Attitude Change
9.3Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience
9.4Group Influences on Behavior and Mental Processes
9.5Bias, Prejudice, and Discrimination
9.6Altruism and Aggression
🧐 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
✍️ Free Response Questions (FRQ)
⏱️ 4 min read
November 11, 2020
Etiology is the cause(s) of a psychological disorder. Each psychological approach has a different view on the causes of each disorder.
|Behavioral 📖||Studies the connection between our minds and behavior.||Ivan Pavlov, B.F. Skinner||Could explain learned phobias. Think about the Little Albert study 🐀|
|Biological 🧬||States that behavior is based on physical processes such as those relating to the brain, hormones, and other chemicals.||Paul Broca, Carl Wernicke, Roger Sperry||Disorders are a result of a misbalance in the brain 🧠, whether it be with neurotransmitters or hormones.|
|Biopsychosocial||Acknowledges the person as a whole and tries to look at all of the patient's circumstances. It looks at biological, psychological, and social factors to understand a person’s behavior.||Modern Psychology||Disorders are as a result of genetic predispositions, a misbalance in the brain, maladaptive thoughts, and culture.|
|Cognitive 🧠||States that thought processes impact the way people behave. A cognitive psychologist may study how an emotion such as fear affects one’s thinking.||Jean Piaget, Albert Bandura||Disorders are a result of maladaptive thoughts|
|Evolutionary ❤️||Uses evolutionary biology to explain human behavior. Also, it looks at how natural selection of traits promotes the survival of genes. An evolutionary psychologist may study how anger could be a gene inherited from our ancestors.||Charles Darwin||Anxiety helped us survive, therefore we have it. It was part of natural selection.|
|Humanistic 🔺||believes that humans have free will and the ability to grow 🌱 All individuals are striving to reach self actualization with this approach.||Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers||Anxiety disorders are as a result of not having the environment to grow (not having an unconditional positive regard) and therefore being unable to reach self-actualization.|
|Psychodynamic 🙊||Focuses on the study of the unconscious mind. It states that behavior is determined by past experiences stored in the unconscious mind.||Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Erik Erikson||Could explain that anxiety disorders are a result of unconscious thoughts from childhood or the instability of the ego and not being able to balance between the id and superego.|
|Sociocultural 🗣️||Studies how thinking and behavior vary across cultures and situations. A sociocultural psychologist may study how expressions of fear vary across cultures.||Solomon Asch, Stanley Milgram||Anxiety occurs as a result of norms that exist within a culture.|
Uses theories of conditioning which have been proven to help in rewiring behavior.
Has little to no focus on biological aspects.
Experiments are objective, providing concrete data.
Has little to no focus on environment, upbringing, etc.
Provides a more complete picture by using three different approaches.
Relationship between each section may be difficult to understand.
Used to successfully rewire thoughts in clinical settings.
Extremely logical and rarely accounts for emotional responses.
Can compare humans throughout different evolutionary stages.
More effectively used on animals than humans.
Methods are adaptable to various types of people.
Little objectivity is used.
Uses concepts from both nature and nurture arguments.
Theories cannot be proven.
Observations are most commonly made in real-world situations.
Variables are challenging to control.
The purpose of diagnostic labels is to categorize/classify mental illnesses within an easily identifiable set of parameters. However, unexpected negative consequences may occur, such as increased stigma and discrimination toward certain groups.
The Rosenhan Study is a famous 1973 experiment that analyzed labeling by sending mentally healthy subjects to psychiatric hospitals by feigning hallucinations. They faked the disorder to get into the hospitals, but once they were in, they acted normal.
Despite the eventual fading of any symptoms, patients were still seen as correctly diagnosed. Stigma was proven to be driven by the diagnosis, leading to an inaccurate portrayal of circumstances.
7 people were diagnosed with schizophrenia and 1 with bipolar disorder, which shows that they didn't know how to differentiate normal behavior from symptoms of mental illnesses.
This is yet again another example of an unethical experiment that happened. By being brought into a psychiatric hospital, subjects were prone to being treated differently, sometimes searched randomly, and had no privacy.
Rosenhan concluded that labels do matter and could have "a life and an influence of its own." They change one's perception and reality.
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