🔎 Unit 1: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.0Unit 1 Overview: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.1Introducing Psychology: The Historical Progression of Psychology
1.2Research Methods in Psychology
1.3The Experimental Method
1.5Statistical Analysis in Psychology
🧠 Unit 2: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.0Unit 2 Overview: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.1Interaction of Heredity and Environment
2.3Overview of the Nervous System and the Neuron
2.7Tools for Examining Brain Structure and Function
2.8The Adaptable Brain: Neural Fluidity
👀 Unit 3: Sensation and Perception
3.0Unit 3 Overview: Sensation and Perception
3.1Principles of Sensation
3.2Principles of Perception
3.5Auditory Sensation and Perception
📚 Unit 4: Learning
4.0Unit 4 Overview: Learning
🤔 Unit 5: Cognitive Psychology
5.0Unit 5 Overview: Cognitive Psychology
5.1Introduction to Memory
5.5Forgetting and Memory Distortion
5.6Biological Bases of Memory
5.7Introduction to Thinking and Problem Solving
5.8Biases and Errors in Thinking
5.9Introduction to Intelligence
5.10Psychometric Principles and Intelligence Testing
👶 Unit 6: Developmental Psychology
6.0Unit 6 Overview: Developmental Psychology
6.1The Lifespan and Physical Development in Childhood
6.2Social Development in Childhood
6.3Cognitive Development in Childhood
6.5Adulthood and Aging
🤪 Unit 7: Motivation, Emotion, & Personality
7.0Unit 7 Overview: Motivation, Emotion, and Personality
7.1Theories of Motivation
7.2Specific Topics in Motivation
7.3Theories of Emotion
7.4Stress and Coping
7.5Introduction to Personality
7.6Psychoanalytic Theories of Personality
7.7Behaviorism and Social Cognitive Theories of Personality
7.8Humanistic Theories of Personality
7.9Trait Theories of Personality
🛋 Unit 8: Clinical Psychology
8.0Unit 8 Overview: Clinical Psychology
8.1Introduction to Psychological Disorders
8.2Psychological Perspectives and Etiology of Disorders
8.3Neurodevelopmental and Schizophrenic Spectrum Disorders
8.4Bipolar, Depressive, Anxiety, and Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders
8.5Trauma- and Stressor Related, Dissociative, and Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders
8.6Feeding and Eating, Substance and Addictive, and Personality Disorders
8.7Introduction to Treatment of Psychological Disorders
8.8Psychological Perspectives and Treatment of Disorders
8.9Treatment of Disorders from the Biological Perspective
👫 Unit 9: Social Psychology
9.0Unit 9 Overview: Social Psychology
9.1Attribution Theory and Person Perception
9.2Attitude Formation and Attitude Change
9.3Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience
9.4Group Influences on Behavior and Mental Processes
9.5Bias, Prejudice, and Discrimination
9.6Altruism and Aggression
🧐 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
✍️ Free Response Questions (FRQ)
⏱️ 5 min read
November 11, 2020
As covered briefly in previous units, psychology can be approached from many different perspectives. Each perspective has unique methodologies to treat psychological disorders by targeting different areas.
There are generally three different types of therapies though:
💊 Biomedical Therapy—drugs can be used to relieve physical or physiological pain
🛋️ Eclectic Approach—uses techniques from different types of therapies
🗣️ Talk Therapy—different approaches that involve talking to the client or group/family therapy
The basis of behavioral psychology is identifying learned behaviors and using conditioning and or reinforcement for corrections. The past may be referenced in attempts to discover when the harmful behaviors were learned.
Behavior therapy uses counter conditioning, which is basically using classical conditioning to create new conditioned responses over the ones we are trying to get rid of.
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Using this idea, Mary Jones introduced exposure therapy and, specifically, systematic desensitization. Systematic desensitization includes pairing a stimulus of fear with relaxation techniques and conditioning the subject to associate this stimulus with relaxation rather than fear.
Systematic Desensitization uses hierarchies. An example would be if you were afraid of bees 🐝 First, the therapist would figure out what is so frightening about them. Then, she or he would begin showing pictures of bees and asking the client to relax 🖼️ Doing this over and over again, the client will start to feel relaxed when viewing pictures of bees.
Once that happens, the client may be asked to imagine an anxiety-arousing scene with bees involved. If there is anxiety still felt, they would go back to the relaxation technique until the client was completely relaxed. The hierarchy approach 🔺slowly allows the client to get used to their phobia and overcome it.
Image Courtesy of Psychology4A.
Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy
When an anxiety is too difficult to recreate with systematic desensitization, therapists would use virtual reality exposure therapy, which is exactly what it sounds like 🥽 Kinda cool right?
Aversive conditioning includes conditioning something unpleasant with one's addiction. For example, substance use disorders are very hard to beat. If one uses aversive conditioning and begins to condition nausea with alcohol, the client will, eventually, no longer drink alcohol 🤢
Using behavior modification, therapists encourage wanted behaviors with reinforcement and discourage negative behaviors. Some use a token economy, where clients earn a "token" for doing a desired behavior, and as the tokens accumulate, the client can exchange them for a reward💰 Whether or not this is ethical is debated, but behavior modification doesn't usually help with extreme psychological disorders.
Unlike behavioral psychology, cognitive psychology places emphasis on current thoughts, behaviors, and other parts of cognition. Cognitive therapists believe that thinking "colors" our feelings so we must think differently and then our feelings will be normalized and positive 🙃
Therapy may consist of working through problems in both real and hypothetical situations to develop problem-solving skills. An example of cognitive therapy is Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), which challenges people to think otherwise and enable healthier behaviors. Think of REBT as reserving irrational beliefs.
Image Courtesy of Psychodynamic Techniques.
Humanistic psychology provides more individualism in treatment planning than other approaches. This non-deterministic approach popularized by Carl Rogers states that humans are innately good and capable of change. Client-centered talk therapy is the primary treatment method.
Carl Rogers tries to grow the self-awareness of his patience, which in turn, grows self-acceptance 🌠 Rather than focusing on one's disorder and curing it, he focuses on helping them reach self-actualization. Unlike Freud and his psychodynamic theory, Rogers focuses on the present and the future.
Client-centered talk therapy focuses on promoting active listening in an accepting, genuine, and empathic environment. Don't forget unconditional positive regard!
Active listening is where Rogers would simply listen, repeat, restate, and clarify what the patient said. This makes it so they don't change the client's thoughts or perspectives on anything.
According to psychodynamic psychology, behavior is influenced by unconscious motives through the id, superego, and ego. Freud believed that these unconscious, uncontrollable urges and motivations lead to disorders and irrational thinking. A person’s childhood may be analyzed to determine the root of current problems. This approach is one of the most important ones to know for the AP exam.
He focused on four main things:
Bringing unconscious thoughts into awareness, providing an insight of where the disorder may be coming from. This gets rid of the disorder from the inside 💭
Using free association, Freud would look for mental blocks (stopping mid-thought to prevent saying something or changing the subject) which show resistance ⚠️
Freud would see these mental blocks and how people tried to defend themselves, and he began to interpret why these blocks existed.
Eventually, patient would become more open and comfortable, expressing feelings with no problem (whether they be negative or positive). When the patient did this, Freud would think they are transferring thoughts experienced in the past into the present. This then again provides insight.
Psychodynamic psychologists focus on fast therapy and providing immediate relief through understanding feelings and learning about yourself. Rather than thinking about the past, they focus on current relationships.
The cognitive-behavioral approach uses concepts and theories from both the cognitive and behavioral approaches. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is the primary type of therapy used in this approach due to its combination of perspectives.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy is one of the most widely practiced therapies and most successful. It aims to change the way someone thinks and acts (hence its name).
Those that undergo CBT learn that their negative thoughts are irrational and begin to replace it with a positive way of thinking. CBT works with anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and anorexia.
Image Courtesy of Verywell Mind.
Rather than thinking negatively and extending their depression, people with mood disorders begin to replace their thinking and redirect their energy in ways that reward them and make them feel good.
Sociocultural psychology contextualizes personal development within societal expectations and norms. The psychology of an individual is heavily shaped by those factors, as well as interactions between other people and cultures.
Best When Treating . . .
any disorders that lead to abnormalities in behavioral patterns or patients with a history of trauma.
disorders where cognition behind thoughts and behaviors is affected or people who cannot rationally problem solve.
interpersonal problems, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, or personality disorders.
people with a history of unresolved trauma.
a broad range of disorders throughout a variety of different cultures.
Treatment success is not only affected by the disorder and type of treatment, but also by many other variables. Cultural stigma of mental illness, socioeconomic status, life outlook, environment, and demographic information are all capable of impacting this.
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