🔎 Unit 1: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.0Unit 1 Overview: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.1Introducing Psychology: The Historical Progression of Psychology
1.2Research Methods in Psychology
1.3The Experimental Method
1.5Statistical Analysis in Psychology
🧠 Unit 2: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.0Unit 2 Overview: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.1Interaction of Heredity and Environment
2.3Overview of the Nervous System and the Neuron
2.7Tools for Examining Brain Structure and Function
2.8The Adaptable Brain: Neural Fluidity
👀 Unit 3: Sensation and Perception
3.0Unit 3 Overview: Sensation and Perception
3.1Principles of Sensation
3.2Principles of Perception
3.5Auditory Sensation and Perception
📚 Unit 4: Learning
4.0Unit 4 Overview: Learning
🤔 Unit 5: Cognitive Psychology
5.0Unit 5 Overview: Cognitive Psychology
5.1Introduction to Memory
5.5Forgetting and Memory Distortion
5.6Biological Bases of Memory
5.7Introduction to Thinking and Problem Solving
5.8Biases and Errors in Thinking
5.9Introduction to Intelligence
5.10Psychometric Principles and Intelligence Testing
👶 Unit 6: Developmental Psychology
6.0Unit 6 Overview: Developmental Psychology
6.1The Lifespan and Physical Development in Childhood
6.2Social Development in Childhood
6.3Cognitive Development in Childhood
6.5Adulthood and Aging
🤪 Unit 7: Motivation, Emotion, & Personality
7.0Unit 7 Overview: Motivation, Emotion, and Personality
7.1Theories of Motivation
7.2Specific Topics in Motivation
7.3Theories of Emotion
7.4Stress and Coping
7.5Introduction to Personality
7.6Psychoanalytic Theories of Personality
7.7Behaviorism and Social Cognitive Theories of Personality
7.8Humanistic Theories of Personality
7.9Trait Theories of Personality
🛋 Unit 8: Clinical Psychology
8.0Unit 8 Overview: Clinical Psychology
8.1Introduction to Psychological Disorders
8.2Psychological Perspectives and Etiology of Disorders
8.3Neurodevelopmental and Schizophrenic Spectrum Disorders
8.4Bipolar, Depressive, Anxiety, and Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders
8.5Trauma- and Stressor Related, Dissociative, and Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders
8.6Feeding and Eating, Substance and Addictive, and Personality Disorders
8.7Introduction to Treatment of Psychological Disorders
8.8Psychological Perspectives and Treatment of Disorders
8.9Treatment of Disorders from the Biological Perspective
👫 Unit 9: Social Psychology
9.0Unit 9 Overview: Social Psychology
9.1Attribution Theory and Person Perception
9.2Attitude Formation and Attitude Change
9.3Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience
9.4Group Influences on Behavior and Mental Processes
9.5Bias, Prejudice, and Discrimination
9.6Altruism and Aggression
🧐 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
✍️ Free Response Questions (FRQ)
⏱️ 3 min read
November 11, 2020
Neurodevelopmental disorders are caused by unusual brain development, brain damage, or any other abnormality in the brain. The most commonly addressed neurodevelopmental disorders on the exam are Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and intellectual disabilities.
ASD is characterized by atypical behaviors, speech, interests, thought patterns, and interpersonal interactions. People with ASD have a difficult time interpreting social cues and may prefer routine over spontaneity.
ADHD is marked by the appearance of one or more symptoms:
ADHD is inheritable and can be treated with medications that calm the above symptoms 🧬 It often exists with another disorder, specifically a learning disorder or emotional disorder.
Those that are skeptic of ADHD simply blame the impulsiveness on the presence of the Y chromosome. They believe that in a boring environment, the child will be energized and improperly diagnosed with ADHD.
There is generally a lot of disagreement about ADHD and if it really is a neurodevelopmental disorder 🤷
Image Courtesy of Verywell Mind.
Having an IQ below 70 often means that there is some sort of intellectual disability that causes a person to:
have limitations in learning
have a hard time solving problems
have a hard time communicating
lack in many skills needed for everyday life
People with an intellectual disability have a really hard time adapting to the demands of life that require conceptual, social, and practical skills. An example of an intellectual disability is down syndrome.
Neurocognitive disorder is a decrease in mental functioning caused by a somatogenic cause. Examples include breathing conditions, brain trauma, and cardiovascular disorders.
The most common neurocognitive disorder is Alzheimer's disease, which is basically memory loss as you age. Common symptoms include:
🧠 Short-term memory loss
🚗 Difficulty walking and driving
😩 Inability to focus
Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder that impacts an individual’s perception of reality. During a psychotic episode, people may experience improbable or possible delusions and auditory and/or visual hallucinations.
Schizophrenia is an example of psychosis, in which a person loses complete contact with reality and experiences false sensations.
There are many types of schizophrenia and their symptoms greatly vary.
Acute Schizophrenia is developed rapidly after a period of stress. They have more positive symptoms and are responsive to therapy, so recovery is possible. Positive symptoms are added symptoms, such as delusions and hallucinations. They add to a person's personality.
Chronic Schizophrenia is slow and develops over time. Those with chronic schizophrenia exhibit negative symptoms. Recovery is doubtful. Negative symptoms remove from a person's personality. Some examples include:
Catatonia— Being motionless for hours and agitated shortly after
Flat Affect—emotionless state
Image Courtesy of Verywell Mind.
Schizophrenia is purely a disease of the brain.
If dopamine levels are high, there are too many receptors and schizophrenia is intensified.
Some display low brain activity in the frontal lobes and a shrinkage of tissue.
There is increased activity in the amygdala and thalamus.
Spaces in the brain are enlarged:
Image Courtesy of ResearchGate.
Since it is very genetic, risk could be increased during fetal development.
For example, if there is a pandemic, the mother is sick with the flu, or the mother lives in dense areas, there is an increased risk of schizophrenia.
To explain acute schizophrenia, stress could turn on specific genes that eventually lead to the disorder. Remember, your environment influences gene expression and behavior!
These are mainly biological factors and there aren't any psychological factors unless there is an underlying biological factor involved too.
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