🔎 Unit 1: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.0Unit 1 Overview: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.1Introducing Psychology: The Historical Progression of Psychology
1.2Research Methods in Psychology
1.3The Experimental Method
1.5Statistical Analysis in Psychology
🧠 Unit 2: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.0Unit 2 Overview: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.1Interaction of Heredity and Environment
2.3Overview of the Nervous System and the Neuron
2.7Tools for Examining Brain Structure and Function
2.8The Adaptable Brain: Neural Fluidity
👀 Unit 3: Sensation and Perception
3.0Unit 3 Overview: Sensation and Perception
3.1Principles of Sensation
3.2Principles of Perception
3.5Auditory Sensation and Perception
📚 Unit 4: Learning
4.0Unit 4 Overview: Learning
🤔 Unit 5: Cognitive Psychology
5.0Unit 5 Overview: Cognitive Psychology
5.1Introduction to Memory
5.5Forgetting and Memory Distortion
5.6Biological Bases of Memory
5.7Introduction to Thinking and Problem Solving
5.8Biases and Errors in Thinking
5.9Introduction to Intelligence
5.10Psychometric Principles and Intelligence Testing
👶 Unit 6: Developmental Psychology
6.0Unit 6 Overview: Developmental Psychology
6.1The Lifespan and Physical Development in Childhood
6.2Social Development in Childhood
6.3Cognitive Development in Childhood
6.5Adulthood and Aging
🤪 Unit 7: Motivation, Emotion, & Personality
7.0Unit 7 Overview: Motivation, Emotion, and Personality
7.1Theories of Motivation
7.2Specific Topics in Motivation
7.3Theories of Emotion
7.4Stress and Coping
7.5Introduction to Personality
7.6Psychoanalytic Theories of Personality
7.7Behaviorism and Social Cognitive Theories of Personality
7.8Humanistic Theories of Personality
7.9Trait Theories of Personality
🛋 Unit 8: Clinical Psychology
8.0Unit 8 Overview: Clinical Psychology
8.1Introduction to Psychological Disorders
8.2Psychological Perspectives and Etiology of Disorders
8.3Neurodevelopmental and Schizophrenic Spectrum Disorders
8.4Bipolar, Depressive, Anxiety, and Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders
8.5Trauma- and Stressor Related, Dissociative, and Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders
8.6Feeding and Eating, Substance and Addictive, and Personality Disorders
8.7Introduction to Treatment of Psychological Disorders
8.8Psychological Perspectives and Treatment of Disorders
8.9Treatment of Disorders from the Biological Perspective
👫 Unit 9: Social Psychology
9.0Unit 9 Overview: Social Psychology
9.1Attribution Theory and Person Perception
9.2Attitude Formation and Attitude Change
9.3Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience
9.4Group Influences on Behavior and Mental Processes
9.5Bias, Prejudice, and Discrimination
9.6Altruism and Aggression
🧐 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
✍️ Free Response Questions (FRQ)
⏱️ 4 min read
November 11, 2020
Trait theorists believe that we can describe people's personalities by specifying their main characteristics 😎 These characteristics are thought to be stable and to motivate behavior with the specific trait. Trait theorists are most likely to claim that personality is genetic 🧬
Allport was the one that first described personality through traits, which are patterns of behavior.
Image Courtesy of mollychandlerxx.
Factor analysis, from the intelligence unit, comes back here. It is a procedure used to find clusters of traits that are similar and make up your personality.
Every personality test that you take online is a trait personality test, and there are so many different types.
Hans Eysenck is one who believes in the nomothetic approach: the belief that the same basic set of traits can be used to describe all people’s personalities 🌎He believed that by classifying all people along an introversion-extraversion scale and a stable-unstable scale, we could easily describe their personalities.
Image Courtesy of Medium.
If you are passive, you are also thoughtful, peaceful, controlled, reliable, and calm.
You could probably identify the type of personality test they created by their last names: the Myers-Brigg Type Indicator (MBTI). It is used all around the world and there are four main sections of the test:
😊Extroverted—outgoing, energetic, sociable. Do you find yourself more attached to communicating with others?
🎨Introverted—gentle, quiet, caring, logical. Do you find yourself focused on yourself and being alone?
🔰Sensing—organized, observant. Do you focus more on what is given to you?
🤔Intuition (N)—logical, conceptual, insightful. Do you interpret and add meaning to the information that is given to you?
❤️Feeling type—sensitive, appreciative, tactful. Do you put more weight on personal concerns?
⚖️Thinking type—are good at analyzing pros and cons and are logical. Do you put more weight on facts and objective?
💭Judging—determined, concrete. Do you stay to what you know?
🔎Perceiving—independent, questioning, adaptable. Do you stay open to new things?
You don't really have to know the specifics, but it's really interesting to fit yourself into each category. Here's the link if you want to take the test and see if you guessed correctly. Have some fun with what you learn!
This information was adapted from the Myers-Brigg Website.
Here is a diagram of the different personality types that come from these four traits:
Image Courtesy of Mouth Foods.
Cattell created the 16 PF (personality factor) which measures what he believed were the 16 basic traits present in all people, but to different degrees. It is unlikely that you have to know the 16 factors.
Paul Costa & Robert McCrea proposed that personality can be described using the big five personality traits:
📆Openness—Do you like change? Can you adapt to it?
Low score: practical, prefers routine, comforting
High score: imaginative, prefers variety, independent
🧮Consciousness—Are you organized and careful?
Low score: disorganized, careless, impulsive
High score: organized, careful, disciplined
😊Agreeableness—How well do you get along with others?
Low score: ruthless, suspicious, uncooperative
High score: soft-hearted, trusting, helpful
🗣️Extroversion—Are you shy or outgoing?
Low score: retiring, sober, reserved
High score: sociable, affectionate, fun-loving
😬Neuroticism—Are you anxious often?
Low score: calm, secure, self-satisfied
High score: anxious, insecure, self-pitying
Image Courtesy of Wikipedia.
These five traits, unlike the past few types of personality tests, should be memorized. Use the mnemonic device "OCEAN" to help.
To compare the personality theories you learned in the past few key topics, here is a nice table:
|Personality Theory||Key Proponents||Assumptions||View of Personality|
|Psychoanalytic||Freud||Emotional disorders spring from unconscious dynamics, such as unresolved sexual and other childhood conflicts, and fixation at various developmental stages. Defense mechanisms fend off anxiety.||Personality consists of pleasure-seeking impulses (the id), a reality-oriented executive (the ego), and an internalized set of ideals (the superego)|
|Psychodynamic||Adler, Horney, Jung||The unconscious and conscious minds interact. Childhood experiences and defense mechanisms are important.||The dynamic interplay of conscious and unconscious motives and conflicts shape our personality.|
|Humanistic||Rogers, Maslow||Rather than examining the struggles of sick people, it's better to focus on the ways healthy people strive for self-realization.||If our basic human needs are met, people will strive toward self-actualization. In a climate of unconditional positive regard, we can develop self-awareness and a more realistic and positive self-concept.|
|Trait||Allport, Eysenck, McCrae, Costa||We have certain stable and enduring characteristics, influenced by genetic predispositions.||Scientific study of traits has isolated important dimensions of personality, such as the Big Five traits.|
|Social-Cognitive||Bandura||Our traits and the social context interact to produce our behaviors.||Conditioning and observational learning interact with cognition to create behavior patterns.|
Table Courtesy of Propertarianism. All credit to David G. Myers and Nathan DeWall
🎥 Watch: AP Psychology—Personality Theories
🏆 Trivia—Personality, Motivation, and Emotion
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