🔎 Unit 1: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.0Unit 1 Overview: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.1Introducing Psychology: The Historical Progression of Psychology
1.2Research Methods in Psychology
1.3The Experimental Method
1.5Statistical Analysis in Psychology
🧠 Unit 2: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.0Unit 2 Overview: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.1Interaction of Heredity and Environment
2.3Overview of the Nervous System and the Neuron
2.7Tools for Examining Brain Structure and Function
2.8The Adaptable Brain: Neural Fluidity
👀 Unit 3: Sensation and Perception
3.0Unit 3 Overview: Sensation and Perception
3.1Principles of Sensation
3.2Principles of Perception
3.5Auditory Sensation and Perception
📚 Unit 4: Learning
4.0Unit 4 Overview: Learning
🤔 Unit 5: Cognitive Psychology
5.0Unit 5 Overview: Cognitive Psychology
5.1Introduction to Memory
5.5Forgetting and Memory Distortion
5.6Biological Bases of Memory
5.7Introduction to Thinking and Problem Solving
5.8Biases and Errors in Thinking
5.9Introduction to Intelligence
5.10Psychometric Principles and Intelligence Testing
👶 Unit 6: Developmental Psychology
6.0Unit 6 Overview: Developmental Psychology
6.1The Lifespan and Physical Development in Childhood
6.2Social Development in Childhood
6.3Cognitive Development in Childhood
6.5Adulthood and Aging
🤪 Unit 7: Motivation, Emotion, & Personality
7.0Unit 7 Overview: Motivation, Emotion, and Personality
7.1Theories of Motivation
7.2Specific Topics in Motivation
7.3Theories of Emotion
7.4Stress and Coping
7.5Introduction to Personality
7.6Psychoanalytic Theories of Personality
7.7Behaviorism and Social Cognitive Theories of Personality
7.8Humanistic Theories of Personality
7.9Trait Theories of Personality
🛋 Unit 8: Clinical Psychology
8.0Unit 8 Overview: Clinical Psychology
8.1Introduction to Psychological Disorders
8.2Psychological Perspectives and Etiology of Disorders
8.3Neurodevelopmental and Schizophrenic Spectrum Disorders
8.4Bipolar, Depressive, Anxiety, and Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders
8.5Trauma- and Stressor Related, Dissociative, and Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders
8.6Feeding and Eating, Substance and Addictive, and Personality Disorders
8.7Introduction to Treatment of Psychological Disorders
8.8Psychological Perspectives and Treatment of Disorders
8.9Treatment of Disorders from the Biological Perspective
👫 Unit 9: Social Psychology
9.0Unit 9 Overview: Social Psychology
9.1Attribution Theory and Person Perception
9.2Attitude Formation and Attitude Change
9.3Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience
9.4Group Influences on Behavior and Mental Processes
9.5Bias, Prejudice, and Discrimination
9.6Altruism and Aggression
🧐 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
✍️ Free Response Questions (FRQ)
⏱️ 4 min read
November 11, 2020
This unit is about motivation. It identifies and applies motivational concepts to understand behavior of humans and animals🧑🤝🧑🐻. It talks about the strengths and weaknesses between theories and the most basic primary needs: physiological, social, and sexual.
Motivation is something that directs a behavior. For example, if you want to get a good grade on the AP Psych exam in May, you are motivated to study 💯 You're probably very familiar with motivation, but it goes deeper than you think and basically exists in every action you do.
Before going through the theories, let's discuss some vocab terms:
Instincts are behaviors that occur unconsciously because they usually just "feel right."
Incentives drive us toward or away from the behavior we want. The incentive could either be a positive stimulus or a negative stimulus, but either way, it impacts our behavior🚶
Intrinsic motivation is when you are doing something for yourself. An example of this would be reading just because you love to read ❤️📖
Extrinsic motivation is when you are doing something for an external factor. Using the above example, if you read just to fulfill a summer assignment ✔️📖, you were extrinsically motivated.
Having intrinsic motivation is stronger and drives you farther since it is something you, yourself, are genuinely interested in.
The overjustification effect is when an external factor decreases one's intrinsic motivation to complete a certain task. For example, if you began to learn French on your own time and then came across a really good job offer that requires French, you may now begin to learn French just for the job, rather than yourself💰
Image Courtesy of Sites at Penn State.
High self-efficacy is the belief that someone can complete a task successfully. This usually goes hand in hand with high intrinsic motivation and accepting challenges along the way.
Low self-efficacy is being uncertain that you can master a task and goes hand in hand with low intrinsic motivation. You don't feel as interested in learning the task, so you are unsure if you will be good at it. Having low self-efficacy leads to giving up and avoiding obstacles.
Many different theories about motivation developed over time. Let's discuss them!
This theory has to do with Charles Darwin's principle of natural selection that stated that those that are best adapted to their environments are most likely to mate and survive. Therefore, the motivation in this theory is to survive and we, as well as animals, adapt behaviors that help us live 💕
|Example||Strength of Theory 👍||Weakness of Theory 👎|
|All babies display innate reflexes like rooting and sucking||It helps explain similarities due to our ancestral past.||It helps explain animal behaviors better than human behaviors.|
This theory focuses on how our inner pushes and external pulls interact to drive our behaviors.
Push Factors: Motivate us to get away from bad things
Pull Factors: Motivate us to work toward good things
We have our need, drives, and behaviors. Our physiological needs create a tensional state that motivates an organism to satisfy that need by doing a certain behavior.
By doing this behavior, we should reach homeostasis, which is a steady internal state.
|Example||Strength of Theory👍||Weakness of Theory👎|
|When you need food, you become hungry, and then you cook yourself something to make the feeling of hunger go away.||It explains our motivation to reduce arousal by meeting basic needs, hunger, or thirst.||It doesn't explain why some motivated behaviors increase arousal.|
Image Courtesy of Myers' AP Psychology Textbook 2nd Edition.
The optimal arousal theory focuses on finding the right level of stimulation. An organism tries to find behaviors that actually increase arousal because everything else bores them.
|Example||Strength of Theory👍||Weakness of Theory👎|
|Being bored and getting yourself into trouble just because you needed to find something to do. Another example is "Curiosity kills the cat" and you just wanna try something new that excites you!||It explains that motivated behavior may increase or decrease arousal.||It doesn't explain our motivation to address our more complex social needs.|
The Yerkes-Dodson law suggests moderate arousal can lead to optimal performance. With this being said, you've probably experienced the law in real life.
If you were ever way too relaxed 😴 when taking an exam or way too stressed 😟, I bet you noticed a decrease in your exam performance. However, if you are moderately aroused so much that you are aware and alert, you will obtain a higher score.
💡Tip—The Yerkes-Dodson Law is very different from the optimal arousal theory. It focuses more on the relationship between performance and arousal.
Image Courtesy of ResearchGate.
Maslow came up with a theory based on needs. The first level of needs focuses on fulfilling basic, physiological needs. Once they are met, the focus shifts to more cognitive and abstract needs.
From the bottom to the top, the pyramid reads:
💧🍔Physiological needs (air, food, and water)
🏠Safety (shelter, place to live)
💕Belongingness (love, a connection with someone or something)
😍Self esteem (loving yourself)
🏆Self actualization (achieving any goal you set your mind to).
Reaching self-actualization is nearly impossible. To do this, you would have to find meaning beyond yourself.
Image Courtesy of Simply Psychology.
|Strength of this Theory||Weakness of this Theory|
|It incorporates the idea that we have levels of various needs.||The order of needs may change depending on the circumstance of the person.|
🎥 Watch: AP Psychology—Motivations
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