🔎 Unit 1: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.0Unit 1 Overview: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.1Introducing Psychology: The Historical Progression of Psychology
1.2Research Methods in Psychology
1.3The Experimental Method
1.5Statistical Analysis in Psychology
🧠 Unit 2: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.0Unit 2 Overview: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.1Interaction of Heredity and Environment
2.3Overview of the Nervous System and the Neuron
2.7Tools for Examining Brain Structure and Function
2.8The Adaptable Brain: Neural Fluidity
👀 Unit 3: Sensation and Perception
3.0Unit 3 Overview: Sensation and Perception
3.1Principles of Sensation
3.2Principles of Perception
3.5Auditory Sensation and Perception
📚 Unit 4: Learning
4.0Unit 4 Overview: Learning
🤔 Unit 5: Cognitive Psychology
5.0Unit 5 Overview: Cognitive Psychology
5.1Introduction to Memory
5.5Forgetting and Memory Distortion
5.6Biological Bases of Memory
5.7Introduction to Thinking and Problem Solving
5.8Biases and Errors in Thinking
5.9Introduction to Intelligence
5.10Psychometric Principles and Intelligence Testing
👶 Unit 6: Developmental Psychology
6.0Unit 6 Overview: Developmental Psychology
6.1The Lifespan and Physical Development in Childhood
6.2Social Development in Childhood
6.3Cognitive Development in Childhood
6.5Adulthood and Aging
🤪 Unit 7: Motivation, Emotion, & Personality
7.0Unit 7 Overview: Motivation, Emotion, and Personality
7.1Theories of Motivation
7.2Specific Topics in Motivation
7.3Theories of Emotion
7.4Stress and Coping
7.5Introduction to Personality
7.6Psychoanalytic Theories of Personality
7.7Behaviorism and Social Cognitive Theories of Personality
7.8Humanistic Theories of Personality
7.9Trait Theories of Personality
🛋 Unit 8: Clinical Psychology
8.0Unit 8 Overview: Clinical Psychology
8.1Introduction to Psychological Disorders
8.2Psychological Perspectives and Etiology of Disorders
8.3Neurodevelopmental and Schizophrenic Spectrum Disorders
8.4Bipolar, Depressive, Anxiety, and Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders
8.5Trauma- and Stressor Related, Dissociative, and Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders
8.6Feeding and Eating, Substance and Addictive, and Personality Disorders
8.7Introduction to Treatment of Psychological Disorders
8.8Psychological Perspectives and Treatment of Disorders
8.9Treatment of Disorders from the Biological Perspective
👫 Unit 9: Social Psychology
9.0Unit 9 Overview: Social Psychology
9.1Attribution Theory and Person Perception
9.2Attitude Formation and Attitude Change
9.3Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience
9.4Group Influences on Behavior and Mental Processes
9.5Bias, Prejudice, and Discrimination
9.6Altruism and Aggression
🧐 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
✍️ Free Response Questions (FRQ)
⏱️ 4 min read
November 11, 2020
We also have three specific motivations: hunger motivation 🍔, sexual motivation, and social motivation 🗣️
We all know our motivation of hunger too well, but let's go into the new information about it!
Washburn and Cannon, two psychologists, derived an experiment that concluded whenever we feel hungry, we experience stomach contractions. Our body, interestingly enough, keeps track of how many calories we take in and how many we burn.
Glucose circulates through the blood and provides our bodies a major source of energy.
If glucose levels decrease, our body is signaled and we become hungry. The brain triggers the hunger in the hypothalamus:
⬆️Lateral hypothalamus—Stimulates hunger in a person
If your lateral hypothalamus was destroyed, you would never have a will to eat.
💡 Lateral Hypothalamus = Large Hunger
⬇️Ventromedial hypothalamus—Stimulates satiation (fullness) after eating
If your ventromedial hypothalamus was destroyed, you would never stop eating.
Image Courtesy of Sutori.
There are also lots of neurotransmitters and hormones that play a role in hunger that you should be familiar with:
⬆️Ghrelin—increases hunger, secreted by an empty stomach
⬆️Orexin—increases hunger, secreted by the hypothalamus
⬇️PYY—decreases hunger, digestive tract hormone
⬇️Leptin—decreases hunger, protein hormone secreted by fat cells
Insulin—controls glucose levels, secreted by pancreas
Set-Point Theory states that every body has a fixed weight. When losing weight, there is increased hunger and lowered metabolism, which causes a weight rebound 🤸♀️
Basal Metabolic Rate
This is a measure of how much energy our body takes in while resting and maintaining homeostasis.
Some facts to know about hunger:
When we think about whether or not we should eat, we automatically think of food. This actually, in turn, triggers hunger.
We often consume a lot of carbs when we are upset, since they boost serotonin!
As we learned in unit 4, conditioning can alter anything, including our taste preferences.
Our culture tells us what food we should eat and what food we shouldn't eat, impacting our preferences.
Neophobia, or the dislike of new foods 🤢, exists as well, and it is all because of our ancestors. Not trying new, unknown foods protected them.
Did you ever notice that you eat more when you are with your friends or family 🍏🍕🍳? This is 100% normal; when we see others eat, it makes us want to eat. Also, having different options definitely plays an impact on how hungry you get.
Sexual Motivation seeks to describe and explain sexually motivated behavior in order to treat sexual disorders. It is a physiological need that is affected by learning and one’s values.
Zoologist Alfred Kinsey did a sexual survey in 1948, which was the first of its kind, but not that scientific. However, he found that most men and ½ of the women who participated in the survey engaged in premarital sex, which was unheard of at the time in society.
Master’s & Johnson's 1960’s study about sex identified 4 stages for men and women.
Excitement—Beginning of sexual desire. Blood flows to genital region.
Plateau—Sexual desire and excitement peaks. Secretion increases.
Orgasm—Genitals contract causing ejaculation, occuring after sexual stimulation. Breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure reach their highest points.
Resolution—Body returns to an unaroused state. Males enter a refractory period, which is a resting period in which they cannot achieve orgasm again until this period is over.
Image Courtesy of WebMD.
Sometimes, a problem occurs that impairs ones ability to feel sexually excited. The APA classified this disorder in two ways:
A person experiences distress from unusual sexual interest
The sexual desire entails harm to other people
Just like everything else, hormones activate sexual behavior and enable puberty in teenagers. The primary female sex hormone is estrogen, while the primary male sex hormone is testosterone. Hormones and sexual attraction go hand in hand together and always interact.
Humans are generally very social beings, so we have this social affiliation need and it is one of the three basic human motivations.
There are a few facts that you should know about feeling connected to others and close to the community you are in:
Being social boosted the chances of survival ❤️of our ancestors.
If we are both social and have a sense of personal control (autonomy), we usually have a high self esteem and feel valued.
Unit 9 is all about social psychology, so you'll learn about all of this in-depth, but we often would do anything to conform to a group and gain acceptance.
Ostracism, or the pain of being excluded, exists as well. Many people reach their low when they end relationships with their close friends or partners. Children who are in the foster system also fear being alone and excluded.
Ostracism is the reason why many immigrants immigrated 🌎 as a society, rather than alone.
In our time and age, we also have social media that impacts our mental health and feeling of belonging. We always see people communicating and taking pictures together. Sometimes, we even see people hanging out just looking at their phones.
Technology 💻📱 really changed our lives, but we have to be careful and monitor our social networking use.
🎥 Watch: AP Psychology—Motivations
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