🔎 Unit 1: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.0Unit 1 Overview: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.1Introducing Psychology: The Historical Progression of Psychology
1.2Research Methods in Psychology
1.3The Experimental Method
1.5Statistical Analysis in Psychology
🧠 Unit 2: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.0Unit 2 Overview: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.1Interaction of Heredity and Environment
2.3Overview of the Nervous System and the Neuron
2.7Tools for Examining Brain Structure and Function
2.8The Adaptable Brain: Neural Fluidity
👀 Unit 3: Sensation and Perception
3.0Unit 3 Overview: Sensation and Perception
3.1Principles of Sensation
3.2Principles of Perception
3.5Auditory Sensation and Perception
📚 Unit 4: Learning
4.0Unit 4 Overview: Learning
🤔 Unit 5: Cognitive Psychology
5.0Unit 5 Overview: Cognitive Psychology
5.1Introduction to Memory
5.5Forgetting and Memory Distortion
5.6Biological Bases of Memory
5.7Introduction to Thinking and Problem Solving
5.8Biases and Errors in Thinking
5.9Introduction to Intelligence
5.10Psychometric Principles and Intelligence Testing
👶 Unit 6: Developmental Psychology
6.0Unit 6 Overview: Developmental Psychology
6.1The Lifespan and Physical Development in Childhood
6.2Social Development in Childhood
6.3Cognitive Development in Childhood
6.5Adulthood and Aging
🤪 Unit 7: Motivation, Emotion, & Personality
7.0Unit 7 Overview: Motivation, Emotion, and Personality
7.1Theories of Motivation
7.2Specific Topics in Motivation
7.3Theories of Emotion
7.4Stress and Coping
7.5Introduction to Personality
7.6Psychoanalytic Theories of Personality
7.7Behaviorism and Social Cognitive Theories of Personality
7.8Humanistic Theories of Personality
7.9Trait Theories of Personality
🛋 Unit 8: Clinical Psychology
8.0Unit 8 Overview: Clinical Psychology
8.1Introduction to Psychological Disorders
8.2Psychological Perspectives and Etiology of Disorders
8.3Neurodevelopmental and Schizophrenic Spectrum Disorders
8.4Bipolar, Depressive, Anxiety, and Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders
8.5Trauma- and Stressor Related, Dissociative, and Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders
8.6Feeding and Eating, Substance and Addictive, and Personality Disorders
8.7Introduction to Treatment of Psychological Disorders
8.8Psychological Perspectives and Treatment of Disorders
8.9Treatment of Disorders from the Biological Perspective
👫 Unit 9: Social Psychology
9.0Unit 9 Overview: Social Psychology
9.1Attribution Theory and Person Perception
9.2Attitude Formation and Attitude Change
9.3Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience
9.4Group Influences on Behavior and Mental Processes
9.5Bias, Prejudice, and Discrimination
9.6Altruism and Aggression
🧐 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
✍️ Free Response Questions (FRQ)
⏱️ 3 min read
November 11, 2020
Humanistic theories of personality view people as innately good 👍 and able to determine their own destinies through the exercise of free will. They focus on the importance of:
Self-esteem: a person’s feeling about oneself. Do they like what they see in the mirror? 🤳
Self-esteem is explored more in the last key topic.
Self-concept: a person's global feeling about themself. "Who am I?" 👤
If someone has a positive self-concept, they perceive the world through an optimistic (positive) lens.
If someone has a negative self-concept, they feel unsatisfied.
⭐⭐Whether or not your self-concept is positive depends on how closely you match yourself with your ideal self, or the person you want to be.
Self-concept is a central component of humanistic theories of personality.
Maslow created the Hierarchy of Needs that describes motivation and the way to reach self-actualization. One must fulfill their physiological needs first 🥐, then safety needs 🏠, then the need of feeling loved 💖, then feeling accomplished 🏆, and finally, self-actualization.
You need to go past all these stages in order to be self-actualized, since you must feel accomplished and have the ability to do anything first. Self-actualization is when you fill your potential. When you find a purpose beyond yourself and are able to help others around you, you also reach self-transcendence.
Image Courtesy of Simply Psychology.
Both Maslow and Rogers believe that people are motivated to reach their full potential.
Carl Rogers agreed that people are innately good, but he thought they require certain things from their interactions with others. He believed in a growth-promoting environments 🌍 that include:
Genuineness—When people are genuine, they are transparent with their feelings.
Acceptance—Unconditional Positive Regard
Empathy—When people are empathic and show they share the same feelings, others feel comfortable and continue explaining how they feel.
All three of these make for an unconditional positive regard, which is when people are treated with complete acceptance regardless of their flaws.
Humanistic psychologists believe that in order to reach self-actualization 🌱, they must be given this atmosphere of acceptance and kindness.
Many believe that these theories are overly optimistic, only looking at the good in people and ignoring the bad. They are also too self-centered, vague, and subjective.
As we went over briefly before, culture has a huge impact on who we are and how we fit into society. There are two different types of cultures:
🙋Individualistic cultures focus more on the individual, privacy, and personal achievements.
👪Collectivist cultures focus on community and priority to the group.
If you were born in an individualistic society, self-esteem and self-concept are tied to your individual achievements and what you accomplish. If you didn't reach a certain goal, you'd have a low self-esteem and self-efficacy, thinking you don't have the ability to do it. Because of this, individualistic cultures have a higher rate of stress-related disease; we are constantly stressed, trying to make it in this world.
If you were born in a collectivist society, self-esteem and self-concept are tied to your family and your position in a group. Rather than individual goals, how much you contribute to the group affects your self-esteem and self-efficacy. If you didn't do much to help your group, you may feel stressed. Collectivist societies are generally less stressed because they have their group to fall back on.
|Self||Independent (identity from individual traits)||Interdependent (identity from belonging)|
|Life task||Discover and express one's uniqueness||Maintain connections, fit in, perform role in the group|
|What matters||Me—personal achievement and fulfillment; rights and liberties; self-esteem||Us—group goals and solidarity; social responsibilities and relationships; family duty|
|Coping method||Change reality||Accommodate to reality|
|Morality||Defined by individuals (self-based)||Defined by social networks (duty-based)|
|Relationships||Many—often temporary or casual; confrontation is acceptable||Few—close and enduring; harmony is valued|
|Attributing behaviors||Behavior reflects one's personality and attitudes||Behavior reflects social norms and roles|
Table Courtesy of Evelyn Welch. All credit to Myers' AP Psychology Textbook.
🎥 Watch: AP Psychology—Personality Theories
🏆 Trivia—Personality, Motivation, and Emotion
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