🔎 Unit 1: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.0Unit 1 Overview: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.1Introducing Psychology: The Historical Progression of Psychology
1.2Research Methods in Psychology
1.3The Experimental Method
1.5Statistical Analysis in Psychology
🧠 Unit 2: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.0Unit 2 Overview: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.1Interaction of Heredity and Environment
2.3Overview of the Nervous System and the Neuron
2.7Tools for Examining Brain Structure and Function
2.8The Adaptable Brain: Neural Fluidity
👀 Unit 3: Sensation and Perception
3.0Unit 3 Overview: Sensation and Perception
3.1Principles of Sensation
3.2Principles of Perception
3.5Auditory Sensation and Perception
📚 Unit 4: Learning
4.0Unit 4 Overview: Learning
🤔 Unit 5: Cognitive Psychology
5.0Unit 5 Overview: Cognitive Psychology
5.1Introduction to Memory
5.5Forgetting and Memory Distortion
5.6Biological Bases of Memory
5.7Introduction to Thinking and Problem Solving
5.8Biases and Errors in Thinking
5.9Introduction to Intelligence
5.10Psychometric Principles and Intelligence Testing
👶 Unit 6: Developmental Psychology
6.0Unit 6 Overview: Developmental Psychology
6.1The Lifespan and Physical Development in Childhood
6.2Social Development in Childhood
6.3Cognitive Development in Childhood
6.5Adulthood and Aging
🤪 Unit 7: Motivation, Emotion, & Personality
7.0Unit 7 Overview: Motivation, Emotion, and Personality
7.1Theories of Motivation
7.2Specific Topics in Motivation
7.3Theories of Emotion
7.4Stress and Coping
7.5Introduction to Personality
7.6Psychoanalytic Theories of Personality
7.7Behaviorism and Social Cognitive Theories of Personality
7.8Humanistic Theories of Personality
7.9Trait Theories of Personality
🛋 Unit 8: Clinical Psychology
8.0Unit 8 Overview: Clinical Psychology
8.1Introduction to Psychological Disorders
8.2Psychological Perspectives and Etiology of Disorders
8.3Neurodevelopmental and Schizophrenic Spectrum Disorders
8.4Bipolar, Depressive, Anxiety, and Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders
8.5Trauma- and Stressor Related, Dissociative, and Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders
8.6Feeding and Eating, Substance and Addictive, and Personality Disorders
8.7Introduction to Treatment of Psychological Disorders
8.8Psychological Perspectives and Treatment of Disorders
8.9Treatment of Disorders from the Biological Perspective
👫 Unit 9: Social Psychology
9.0Unit 9 Overview: Social Psychology
9.1Attribution Theory and Person Perception
9.2Attitude Formation and Attitude Change
9.3Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience
9.4Group Influences on Behavior and Mental Processes
9.5Bias, Prejudice, and Discrimination
9.6Altruism and Aggression
🧐 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
✍️ Free Response Questions (FRQ)
⏱️ 5 min read
August 5, 2020
According to Jean Piaget, a child’s ability for moral reasoning occurs with the ability to think symbolically 🕊️ Concepts like morality, justice, and equality are fairly complex and require a good deal of abstract thought. As we develop through childhood and adolescence our sense of morality does as well.
Developmental psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg studied the development of moral reasoning by posing moral dilemmas to children, adolescents, and adults. Based on his analysis of their responses, he identified three stages of moral thinking. These stages are preconventional, conventional, and postconventional.
One of Kohlberg’s most-used dilemmas described the situation of a man named Heinz:
Heinz’s wife is ill and will die without the treatment of one specific drug. Heinz cannot afford the drug and is only able to raise part of the money needed. The chemist refuses to give Heinz the drug for a discounted rate, stating that he intends to make money off of it. In this dilemma, should Heinz steal the drug?
Young children in the stage of preconventional morality (before age 9) have not yet developed their own code of morality. Instead, morality is shaped by rules the child has learned from caregivers and the consequences that will follow. Moral authority is largely self-interested.
A child in this stage may say to steal the drug in order to be seen as a hero. Conversely, they may say that stealing the drug 💊 is bad because Heinz could go to jail.
In the stage of conventional morality, children will begin to adopt the moral standards of valued adults. Moral standards will become individualized, but are rarely questioned. Morality is largely based on adherence to social norms and maintaining social order.
A child in this stage may say that Heinz should not steal the drug because stealing is bad and everyone will think he is a criminal. More than likely, they would fail to question Heinz’s motives or the complexity of his situation.
Beyond adolescence, individuals enter the postconventional stage. In this stage, morality is based on the individual’s personal set of principles and beliefs. Morality is based on a complex understanding of human rights.
According to Kohlberg, this is the highest stage of moral development and some people fail to reach it.
In this stage, the individual may state that Heinz should steal the drug because people deserve to live. Or they may cite the greed of the pharmacist in the situation as being morally corrupt.
(before age 9)
Morality is self-interested, child will obey rules to gain concrete reward or avoid punishment
“If you steal the drug, you’ll go to jail!”
Morality is upheld in order to gain social approval or maintain social order. Being a "good boy/nice girl."
“If you steal the drug 💊, then everyone will think you are bad.”
Postconventional morality (adolescence and beyond)
Morality is based in self-defined ethical principles and relies on an idea of human rights and justice
“People deserve to live 😊”
According to Kohlberg, these stages were fixed in their sequence (i.e. one cannot occur before the other). Kohlberg looked at the reasoning behind the choices the subjects made, not the choice itself.
Critics of Kohlberg have noted that some of his observations tend to be culturally limited to individualistic cultures. Cross-cultural studies showed that people in individualistic societies, who value personal standards, are more likely to show the post-conventional morality than those in collectivistic societies, who value community standards.
Feminist and psychologist Carol Gilligan further developed theories of morality by incorporating gender differences into the equation. Gilligan felt that Kohlberg’s theories centered too much around the process of male 🙍🏽♂️ thought. With this, she decided to study how women develop their sense of morality and how this development differs from men.
Gilligan theorized that morality in men relies on a justice-based system. In this moral code, individuals act autonomously and consequences should be based on fairness and equality.
On the other hand, Gilligan believed that women🙍🏾♀️ invest more in a care-based system of morality. Women tend to emphasize inter-connectedness 🥰 over autonomy. The moral codes of women tend to focus on the avoidance of violence, rather than the distribution of justice ⚖️️ or equality.
The following question is from the first set of 2019 FRQ questions. Credit to College Board and AP.
A psychologist conducted a study at her home during an annual activity of children wearing masks and going door-to-door receiving candy. Some of the children arrived alone, while others arrived in a group. Over the course of the night, the psychologist asked half of the children to remove their masks when they arrived at her door. The remaining half kept their masks on. The psychologist told every child to take only one piece of candy. She then went inside the house, leaving the bowl of candy outside. This gave children the opportunity to take additional candy. The psychologist measured the percentage of children who took additional candy. The psychologist’s hypotheses were that children would take more candy when they were alone and that children would take more candy when they were masked. The results are shown in the graph below; assume all differences are significant.
From College Board
(a) Identify the operational definition of the dependent variable in this study.
(b) Explain how the data support or do not support each of the psychologist’s hypotheses.
(c) Explain why the psychologist cannot generalize her findings to all children.
(d) Explain why the study is not a naturalistic observation.
(e) Explain how each of the following might have played a role in the children’s behavior: Modeling, Deindividuation, Lawrence Kohlberg's preconventional stage.
So far, you should be able to answer all of them with the exception of "deindividuation." All of the other terms are from unit 1. To access the answer key, click here.
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