🔎 Unit 1: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.0Unit 1 Overview: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.1Introducing Psychology: The Historical Progression of Psychology
1.2Research Methods in Psychology
1.3The Experimental Method
1.5Statistical Analysis in Psychology
🧠 Unit 2: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.0Unit 2 Overview: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.1Interaction of Heredity and Environment
2.3Overview of the Nervous System and the Neuron
2.7Tools for Examining Brain Structure and Function
2.8The Adaptable Brain: Neural Fluidity
👀 Unit 3: Sensation and Perception
3.0Unit 3 Overview: Sensation and Perception
3.1Principles of Sensation
3.2Principles of Perception
3.5Auditory Sensation and Perception
📚 Unit 4: Learning
4.0Unit 4 Overview: Learning
🤔 Unit 5: Cognitive Psychology
5.0Unit 5 Overview: Cognitive Psychology
5.1Introduction to Memory
5.5Forgetting and Memory Distortion
5.6Biological Bases of Memory
5.7Introduction to Thinking and Problem Solving
5.8Biases and Errors in Thinking
5.9Introduction to Intelligence
5.10Psychometric Principles and Intelligence Testing
👶 Unit 6: Developmental Psychology
6.0Unit 6 Overview: Developmental Psychology
6.1The Lifespan and Physical Development in Childhood
6.2Social Development in Childhood
6.3Cognitive Development in Childhood
6.5Adulthood and Aging
🤪 Unit 7: Motivation, Emotion, & Personality
7.0Unit 7 Overview: Motivation, Emotion, and Personality
7.1Theories of Motivation
7.2Specific Topics in Motivation
7.3Theories of Emotion
7.4Stress and Coping
7.5Introduction to Personality
7.6Psychoanalytic Theories of Personality
7.7Behaviorism and Social Cognitive Theories of Personality
7.8Humanistic Theories of Personality
7.9Trait Theories of Personality
🛋 Unit 8: Clinical Psychology
8.0Unit 8 Overview: Clinical Psychology
8.1Introduction to Psychological Disorders
8.2Psychological Perspectives and Etiology of Disorders
8.3Neurodevelopmental and Schizophrenic Spectrum Disorders
8.4Bipolar, Depressive, Anxiety, and Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders
8.5Trauma- and Stressor Related, Dissociative, and Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders
8.6Feeding and Eating, Substance and Addictive, and Personality Disorders
8.7Introduction to Treatment of Psychological Disorders
8.8Psychological Perspectives and Treatment of Disorders
8.9Treatment of Disorders from the Biological Perspective
👫 Unit 9: Social Psychology
9.0Unit 9 Overview: Social Psychology
9.1Attribution Theory and Person Perception
9.2Attitude Formation and Attitude Change
9.3Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience
9.4Group Influences on Behavior and Mental Processes
9.5Bias, Prejudice, and Discrimination
9.6Altruism and Aggression
🧐 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
✍️ Free Response Questions (FRQ)
⏱️ 5 min read
November 11, 2020
While development continues throughout the life span, the stages are not nearly as fixed as those we see in childhood. Developmental psychologists recognize three very general stages of adulthood: early adulthood (20s and 30s), middle adulthood (30s to 60s), and late adulthood (60s onward).
At around age 18, adolescents enter a phase known as emerging adulthood. These young adults have checked off all of the milestones related to adolescence, but may not yet be ready to fully face the responsibilities of adulthood.
This in-between phase can be quite stressful. Some may feel like they still do not truly know their identity, while others may feel unprepared to take on full independence. Typically, these issues will sort themselves out around the mid-twenties age range, though many individuals may continue to struggle well past that point.
While adults retain much of their physical aptitude throughout their early years, physical ability 💪🏼 begins to wane in middle adulthood. This decline gradually begins in our mid-twenties and continues as we progress.
One of the most notable stages of physical change occurring in middle adulthood is characterized by a decline in fertility. Men eventually experience a decline in sperm count, testosterone level, and may begin to experience sexual dysfunction not present in their younger years.
Women will enter a phase known as menopause, the natural end of a woman’s menstrual cycle, at around the age of 50. However, a woman’s sexual fertility wanes even before then. A woman may experience more difficulty conceiving in her mid-thirties than she would in her early twenties. After 35, pregnancy and childbirth come with higher levels of risk.
As individuals progress into later adulthood, the physical decline of the human body becomes more apparent. Muscle tone and strength 💪 diminishes. The senses, particularly hearing👂🏾and vision 👀, also diminish. As the body ages, health-related complications may arise more frequently.
Just as physical ability declines in middle and late adulthood, so does mental acuity. While long-term memories (especially those most important to us) tend to remain well into our later years, our short-term memory may decrease.
The good news, however, is that the rate of this downward slope is not set in stone. Unfortunately, it will happen to all of us sooner or later. However, efforts to maintain cardiovascular and muscular strength (lifting weights, stretching, remaining active, etc.) and mental abilities (reading, solving puzzles, etc.) can slow this decline.
Image Courtesy of Harvard Health.
With age comes the ever-present awareness of a social clock 🕒 While teenagers tend to have a sense they will live forever, adults must cope with the knowledge that our years are limited. It is important to note that this social clock is largely based upon societal and cultural norms.
In our minds, there are social norms that dictate the age at which certain milestones should occur. For many, having steady income 💰, getting married 💍, having children 👶, and retirement may coincide with ideal ages.
As the years come and go, many may feel a sense of alarm or gravity over not having accomplished these things or simply at the knowledge that they have already happened. We often refer to this as a mid-life crisis.
As we age, our interests and priorities naturally turn to other things.
Psychologists identify these goals as affiliation and achievement, attachment and productivity, connectedness, and competence. These ideas coincide with Erikson’s ideas of intimacy and productivity (Erikson’s theories are discussed at length later in this section).
Throughout adulthood, we form various commitments. For many, the most important of these are related to love 🥰 (both romantic and non-romantic) and achievement 🏆 (career-related accomplishment and fulfillment). For many adults, as time moves on, happiness comes from seeing these commitments come to fruition.
Parents may feel joy in knowing they have produced a happy and healthy child, while another individual may feel content in knowing she has worked hard to make a living throughout her life. If adults cannot find fulfillment in their actions throughout life, they may feel a sense of despair as they age.
Whether a person is 1 or 101, one thing is true: death is unavoidable. As we age, however, this reality becomes much more, well, real. As humans age, not only are they more likely to face their own imminent death, but they are also more likely to experience the deaths of those closest to them.
Grief is a powerful emotion and can take enormous physical tolls on an individual’s body and mind. Contrary to popular belief, there are not sequential and orderly stages of the grief cycle. Still, there are very common reactions that seem to be experienced universally: anger, longing for the lost loved one, eventual acceptance, etc.
While death is a terrifying prospect, it is important to ponder it and the effect it has on us. It is one of the few guarantees in life and we may learn to better accept it once we are able to face it.
Image Courtesy of Owlcation
Developmental psychologist Erik Erikson’s psychosocial stages of development have been instrumental in understanding social development as a whole, not just in the later years of life. However, unlike Piaget and other theorists, Erikson’s theory accounts for the entire lifespan.
Erikson identified eight stages of psychosocial development, each with its own psychosocial task. These stages begin in infancy and last until late adulthood. To Erikson, we are never quite finished developing.
Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages are as follows:
Infancy (birth to 1 yr.)
Trust vs. Mistrust
If needs are met, infants will develop a sense of basic trust.
Toddlerhood (1 to 3 yrs.)
Autonomy vs. shame and doubt
Toddlers will develop the confidence to explore and exercise their own will, or they will doubt their abilities.
Preschool (3 to 6 yrs.)
Initiative vs. guilt
Children will learn to initiate tasks on their own or they will feel guilty about their desire for independence
Elementary School (6 yrs. to puberty)
Competence vs. Inferiority
Children learn to enjoy applying themselves to a task or they will feel inferior
Adolescence (teens into 20s)
Identity vs. Confusion
Teenagers test roles and work to find a sense of self and identity or they become confused about who they are
Young Adulthood (20s to 40s)
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Young adults develop the capacity to form lasting intimate love or they will feel isolated
Middle Adulthood (40s to 60s)
Generativity vs. Stagnation
People begin to experience a sense of contribution through family and work, or they may feel a lack of purpose
Late Adulthood (late 60s and up)
Integrity vs. Despair
Reflecting upon their life, one will feel either satisfaction or despair
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