🔎 Unit 1: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.0Unit 1 Overview: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.1Introducing Psychology: The Historical Progression of Psychology
1.2Research Methods in Psychology
1.3The Experimental Method
1.5Statistical Analysis in Psychology
🧠 Unit 2: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.0Unit 2 Overview: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.1Interaction of Heredity and Environment
2.3Overview of the Nervous System and the Neuron
2.7Tools for Examining Brain Structure and Function
2.8The Adaptable Brain: Neural Fluidity
👀 Unit 3: Sensation and Perception
3.0Unit 3 Overview: Sensation and Perception
3.1Principles of Sensation
3.2Principles of Perception
3.5Auditory Sensation and Perception
📚 Unit 4: Learning
4.0Unit 4 Overview: Learning
🤔 Unit 5: Cognitive Psychology
5.0Unit 5 Overview: Cognitive Psychology
5.1Introduction to Memory
5.5Forgetting and Memory Distortion
5.6Biological Bases of Memory
5.7Introduction to Thinking and Problem Solving
5.8Biases and Errors in Thinking
5.9Introduction to Intelligence
5.10Psychometric Principles and Intelligence Testing
👶 Unit 6: Developmental Psychology
6.0Unit 6 Overview: Developmental Psychology
6.1The Lifespan and Physical Development in Childhood
6.2Social Development in Childhood
6.3Cognitive Development in Childhood
6.5Adulthood and Aging
🤪 Unit 7: Motivation, Emotion, & Personality
7.0Unit 7 Overview: Motivation, Emotion, and Personality
7.1Theories of Motivation
7.2Specific Topics in Motivation
7.3Theories of Emotion
7.4Stress and Coping
7.5Introduction to Personality
7.6Psychoanalytic Theories of Personality
7.7Behaviorism and Social Cognitive Theories of Personality
7.8Humanistic Theories of Personality
7.9Trait Theories of Personality
🛋 Unit 8: Clinical Psychology
8.0Unit 8 Overview: Clinical Psychology
8.1Introduction to Psychological Disorders
8.2Psychological Perspectives and Etiology of Disorders
8.3Neurodevelopmental and Schizophrenic Spectrum Disorders
8.4Bipolar, Depressive, Anxiety, and Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders
8.5Trauma- and Stressor Related, Dissociative, and Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders
8.6Feeding and Eating, Substance and Addictive, and Personality Disorders
8.7Introduction to Treatment of Psychological Disorders
8.8Psychological Perspectives and Treatment of Disorders
8.9Treatment of Disorders from the Biological Perspective
👫 Unit 9: Social Psychology
9.0Unit 9 Overview: Social Psychology
9.1Attribution Theory and Person Perception
9.2Attitude Formation and Attitude Change
9.3Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience
9.4Group Influences on Behavior and Mental Processes
9.5Bias, Prejudice, and Discrimination
9.6Altruism and Aggression
🧐 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
✍️ Free Response Questions (FRQ)
⏱️ 4 min read
November 11, 2020
Memory is the recalling and retaining of information and past experiences.
How do our minds process all of the information around us? Let's go over a few ways.
Effortful processing is the active processing of information that needs sustained effort. It's simply that learning requires both effort and attention ⚠️ Practice and rehearsal are often needed to learn new things, such as learning a new musical instrument.
Automatic Processing is the unconscious processing of well-learned material. It is much like the term “muscle memory,” because you can do something without much thought. An example could be knitting a scarf🧣 while your mind goes elsewhere. You have knitted scarves many times before, so you don’t need to put much attention into knitting the scarf. You are able to think about other things while simultaneously doing it.
🤔Deep processing is processing information with consideration to its meaning. Deep processing creates stronger memories because it involves elaborative rehearsal, creating a more meaningful analysis.
💭Shallow processing is not as involved as deep processing. It uses surface characteristics to process information. The two types of shallow processing are:
Structural—encoding information with the use of visual and physical characteristics 👀
Phonemic—encoding information using auditory characteristics👂
Selective attention is the ability to focus your conscious awareness on a particular stimulus while blocking out competing stimuli. An important concept of selective attention is the cocktail party effect. The cocktail party effect is the ability to focus on a single speaker in a noisy environment. For example, if you are at a party, you can listen to your friend speaking while ignoring everyone speaking around you, despite their volume.
Divided attention is the ability to focus on multiple stimuli simultaneously. It is also referred to as multitasking. An example would be singing a song while doing the dishes 🎶🍽️
Divided attention decreases the amount of attention placed on one task if there is more than one. For example, if you are on the phone with your friend while doing your homework and your friend asks you a question, your attention to your homework decreases.
Metacognition is the ability to control your own thoughts. It is also the ability to be aware of your own thoughts. An example of metacognition would be realizing you know the answer to a question on the quiz, but not being able to think of the answer at that moment.
Short-term memory is memory that can only be stored for a brief period of time (about 30 seconds). The capacity of short term memory is limited. An example of short term memory would be retaining the phone number of a store in order to be able to call that number on your cell phone📞
The capacity for long term memory is unlimited. Unlike short term memory, long term memory can be stored over long periods of time ➡️
Explicit memory is the stored memory of facts. For example, explicit memory is knowing how many continents there are🌎 Explicit memory is further divided into two more categories: semantic and episodic.
Semantic—the memory of facts, ideas and concepts
Gif Courtesy of Tenor.
Episodic—memories of personal experiences. An example would be telling a friend about the first time you learned how to knit🧶
Gif Courtesy of Giphy.
Implicit memory (procedural)
Implicit memory is a type of long term memory. Implicit memory is memory that is remembered unconsciously.
One of the most common forms is procedural memory. Procedural memory is the memory of how to do repetitive everyday tasks. Examples of procedural memories include riding a bike 🚴, tying a shoe 👞, and driving a car 🚗
Sensory memory is memory involving the five senses: taste 👅(gustation), smell 👃🏻(olfaction), hearing 👂🏾(audition), sight 👁, and touch☝🏾 It's the ability to retain information about the sensory information after the original stimulus has ended. It's retained just long enough to be recognized. An example would be recognizing the smell of baking cookies.
Sensory memory can be further divided into two categories: echoic and iconic.
Echoic—the memory of sound, lasts about 3 to 4 seconds
Iconic—memory of visual stimuli (an image), lasts about one quarter to one half a second
Prospective memory is remembering to perform an action at a certain time. An example would be remembering to take medicine after lunch 💊
Gif Courtesy of Gfycat.
Flashbulb memory is a clear memory of an emotionally significant event, but it can sometimes be inaccurately remembered. A major example of flashbulb memory is September 11th.
🎥Watch: AP Psychology - Cognition + Memory
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