ap psych study guides

🤔  Unit 5: Cognitive Psychology

👶  Unit 6: Developmental Psychology

🤪  Unit 7: Motivation, Emotion, & Personality

🛋  Unit 8: Clinical Psychology

5.1 Introduction to Memory

#cognition

#memory

#effortfulprocessing

#automaticprocessing

#selectiveattention

⏱️  4 min read

written by

Sadiyya Holsey

sadiyya holsey

Dalia Savy

dalia savy

(editor)

November 11, 2020

available on hyper typer

Memory is the recalling and retaining of information and past experiences. 

Cognitive Processes

How do our minds process all of the information around us? Let's go over a few ways.

Effortful vs. Automatic Processing

Effortful processing is the active processing of information that needs sustained effort. It's simply that learning requires both effort and attention ⚠️ Practice and rehearsal are often needed to learn new things, such as learning a new musical instrument.

Automatic Processing is the unconscious processing of well-learned material. It is much like the term “muscle memory,” because you can do something without much thought. An example could be knitting a scarf🧣 while your mind goes elsewhere. You have knitted scarves many times before, so you don’t need to put much attention into knitting the scarf. You are able to think about other things while simultaneously doing it. 

Effortful Processing 

Automatic Processing

  • Requires effort

  • Requires attention

  • Used to process new information

  • Not much attention required

  • Muscle Memory

  • Unconscious processing

Deep vs. Shallow Processing 

🤔Deep processing is processing information with consideration to its meaning. Deep processing creates stronger memories because it involves elaborative rehearsal, creating a more meaningful analysis. 

💭Shallow processing is not as involved as deep processing. It uses surface characteristics to process information. The two types of shallow processing are:

  • Structural—encoding information with the use of visual and physical characteristics 👀

  • Phonemic—encoding information using auditory characteristics👂

Deep Processing

Shallow Processing

  • Leads to better recall

  • Considers the meaning of information

  • Involves elaborative rehearsal 

  • Structural and Phonemic

  • Surface characteristics to process information

Selective vs. Divided Attention

Selective attention is the ability to focus your conscious awareness on a particular stimulus while blocking out competing stimuli. An important concept of selective attention is the cocktail party effect. The cocktail party effect is the ability to focus on a single speaker in a noisy environment. For example, if you are at a party, you can listen to your friend speaking while ignoring everyone speaking around you, despite their volume.  

Divided attention is the ability to focus on multiple stimuli simultaneously. It is also referred to as multitasking. An example would be singing a song while doing the dishes 🎶🍽️

Divided attention decreases the amount of attention placed on one task if there is more than one. For example, if you are on the phone with your friend while doing your homework and your friend asks you a question, your attention to your homework decreases.

Selective Attention

Divided Attention

  • Completely focused on one stimulus

  • Cocktail party effect

  • Focused on multiple tasks at once

  • Makes it harder to focus on a singular task

Metacognition

Metacognition is the ability to control your own thoughts. It is also the ability to be aware of your own thoughts. An example of metacognition would be realizing you know the answer to a question on the quiz, but not being able to think of the answer at that moment.

Memory

Short-term memory

Short-term memory is memory that can only be stored for a brief period of time (about 30 seconds). The capacity of short term memory is limited. An example of short term memory would be retaining the phone number of a store in order to be able to call that number on your cell phone📞

Long-term memory

The capacity for long term memory is unlimited. Unlike short term memory, long term memory can be stored over long periods of time ➡️

Explicit memory

Explicit memory is the stored memory of facts. For example, explicit memory is knowing how many continents there are🌎 Explicit memory is further divided into two more categories: semantic and episodic. 

  • Semantic—the memory of facts, ideas and concepts

    https://firebasestorage.googleapis.com/v0/b/fiveable-92889.appspot.com/o/images%2Ffactjack.gif?alt=media&token=4c70dbf1-47cd-4f78-b6c0-a3a47dfc121e

    Gif Courtesy of Tenor.

  • Episodic—memories of personal experiences. An example would be telling a friend about the first time you learned how to knit🧶

    https://firebasestorage.googleapis.com/v0/b/fiveable-92889.appspot.com/o/images%2Fsept.gif?alt=media&token=4d642325-54e9-4f04-9bae-67239c9c0983

    Gif Courtesy of Giphy.

Implicit memory (procedural)

Implicit memory is a type of long term memory. Implicit memory is memory that is remembered unconsciously.

One of the most common forms is procedural memory. Procedural memory is the memory of how to do repetitive everyday tasks. Examples of procedural memories include riding a bike 🚴, tying a shoe 👞, and driving a car 🚗 

Sensory memory (echoic, iconic)

Sensory memory is memory involving the five senses: taste 👅(gustation), smell 👃🏻(olfaction), hearing 👂🏾(audition), sight 👁, and touch☝🏾 It's the ability to retain information about the sensory information after the original stimulus has ended. It's retained just long enough to be recognized. An example would be recognizing the smell of baking cookies.

Sensory memory can be further divided into two categories: echoic and iconic. 

  • Echoic—the memory of sound, lasts about 3 to 4 seconds

  • Iconic—memory of visual stimuli (an image), lasts about one quarter to one half a second

Prospective Memory

Prospective memory is remembering to perform an action at a certain time. An example would be remembering to take medicine after lunch 💊

https://firebasestorage.googleapis.com/v0/b/fiveable-92889.appspot.com/o/images%2Fdory.gif?alt=media&token=4f5ce00b-56f9-4e81-a103-d514391e8c29

Gif Courtesy of Gfycat.

Flashbulb Memory 

Flashbulb memory is a clear memory of an emotionally significant event, but it can sometimes be inaccurately remembered. A major example of flashbulb memory is September 11th.

🎥Watch: AP Psychology - Cognition + Memory

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