🔎 Unit 1: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.0Unit 1 Overview: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.1Introducing Psychology: The Historical Progression of Psychology
1.2Research Methods in Psychology
1.3The Experimental Method
1.5Statistical Analysis in Psychology
🧠 Unit 2: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.0Unit 2 Overview: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.1Interaction of Heredity and Environment
2.3Overview of the Nervous System and the Neuron
2.7Tools for Examining Brain Structure and Function
2.8The Adaptable Brain: Neural Fluidity
👀 Unit 3: Sensation and Perception
3.0Unit 3 Overview: Sensation and Perception
3.1Principles of Sensation
3.2Principles of Perception
3.5Auditory Sensation and Perception
📚 Unit 4: Learning
4.0Unit 4 Overview: Learning
🤔 Unit 5: Cognitive Psychology
5.0Unit 5 Overview: Cognitive Psychology
5.1Introduction to Memory
5.5Forgetting and Memory Distortion
5.6Biological Bases of Memory
5.7Introduction to Thinking and Problem Solving
5.8Biases and Errors in Thinking
5.9Introduction to Intelligence
5.10Psychometric Principles and Intelligence Testing
👶 Unit 6: Developmental Psychology
6.0Unit 6 Overview: Developmental Psychology
6.1The Lifespan and Physical Development in Childhood
6.2Social Development in Childhood
6.3Cognitive Development in Childhood
6.5Adulthood and Aging
🤪 Unit 7: Motivation, Emotion, & Personality
7.0Unit 7 Overview: Motivation, Emotion, and Personality
7.1Theories of Motivation
7.2Specific Topics in Motivation
7.3Theories of Emotion
7.4Stress and Coping
7.5Introduction to Personality
7.6Psychoanalytic Theories of Personality
7.7Behaviorism and Social Cognitive Theories of Personality
7.8Humanistic Theories of Personality
7.9Trait Theories of Personality
🛋 Unit 8: Clinical Psychology
8.0Unit 8 Overview: Clinical Psychology
8.1Introduction to Psychological Disorders
8.2Psychological Perspectives and Etiology of Disorders
8.3Neurodevelopmental and Schizophrenic Spectrum Disorders
8.4Bipolar, Depressive, Anxiety, and Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders
8.5Trauma- and Stressor Related, Dissociative, and Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders
8.6Feeding and Eating, Substance and Addictive, and Personality Disorders
8.7Introduction to Treatment of Psychological Disorders
8.8Psychological Perspectives and Treatment of Disorders
8.9Treatment of Disorders from the Biological Perspective
👫 Unit 9: Social Psychology
9.0Unit 9 Overview: Social Psychology
9.1Attribution Theory and Person Perception
9.2Attitude Formation and Attitude Change
9.3Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience
9.4Group Influences on Behavior and Mental Processes
9.5Bias, Prejudice, and Discrimination
9.6Altruism and Aggression
🧐 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
✍️ Free Response Questions (FRQ)
⏱️ 4 min read
November 11, 2020
This whole time we've been talking about memory and bias, but what about language? Language is the foundation of all thinking and knowledge and it is made by humans. Isn't it crazy to think that we created language to communicate?
Language is a system of spoken🗣️ and written communication✍️ and varies culture to culture.
Syntax refers to the ordering of words when making a sentence. Every language has their own way of ordering words into a sentence.
For example, in English, we say "my mom's house🏠" or "my sister's pencil✏️" but in Spanish and other romance languages, they say "the house of my mom" or the "pencil of my sister."
Using the proper tense is also an example of syntax.
Grammar refers to the rules of a language and how words should be combined to communicate meaning🧠
Semantics refers to the study of understanding the meanings of words and word combinations.
Lexicon is the general store of vocabulary for people. For instance, every occupation has “lexicon” specific to the field. A chef👨🍳 has a different lexicon than a surgeon👨⚕️
Phonemes (like phonics) are the basic sound units of language.
The word "chat" has three phonemes - ch-a-t.
Morphemes are the smallest meaningful units of speech. Remember morphemes=meaning. It may be part of a word, like a prefix or suffix, but it could be a full word as well. Most morphemes combine 2-3 phonemes.
Gif Courtesy of Giphy
Language Acquisition Device states that humans are born with the capacity to acquire and produce language. It states that we are all born with an understanding of language.
LAD is used to explain how children can learn languages so well. Children understand that sentences should have a structure before they are able to speak in full sentences.
Noam Chomsky says that childhood is the critical period for language development and without exposure, it is impossible to learn a language.
An early stage of speech that occurs around the age of 3-4 months when children produce spontaneous meaningless sounds (ex. ah-goo). It's basically when they use phonemes that aren't from your language.
At about 10 months old, babbling begins to resemble household language🏘️.
At about 12 months old, the child will begin to speak in one word statements that communicate meaning. For example, if they see a cat, they might say "Kitty!" in excitement.
At about 18 months old, children begin to speak in two-word statements, like "Get ball⚽," "Want food," and "I tired😴."
The two-word stage of speech when the child speaks like a telegram. These statements usually consist of one verb and one noun.
At about 24 months old, language develops into full sentences very rapidly.
Using grammar rules without proper use and exceptions. For example, a young child might say “I goed to the park,” because they think they can add -ed to anything in the past tense; however, that is an overgeneralization of the rule because there are exceptions.
Benjamin Whorf's hypothesis is that language controls the way an individual thinks about their world. People that speak different languages have different perspectives on life depending on how complex their language is. Limitations on vocabulary create limitations in how individuals see the world😲.
In other words, people that are bilingual might describe themselves differently, depending on the language they are speaking in. The more languages you speak, the more word power you have. It's very good for your brain and really expands your capabilities.
Some believe that there are two main parts responsible for acquiring language:
Broca's area🗣️ - helps with the production of language and language expression. It is in the left frontal lobe and if it were to be damaged, we would have trouble speaking.
Wernicke's area🧠 - helps with the understanding of language. It is located in the left temporal lobe and if it were to be damaged, we would have trouble understanding.
Aphasia is the impairment of language that occurs when either the Broca's area (expressive aphasia) or Wernicke's area (receptive aphasia) is damaged. Depending on which type of aphasia one has, one could be able to speak language but not understand it and vice versa. Isn't that weird to think about?
🎥Watch: AP Psychology - Cognition + Language
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