🔎 Unit 1: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.0Unit 1 Overview: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.1Introducing Psychology: The Historical Progression of Psychology
1.2Research Methods in Psychology
1.3The Experimental Method
1.5Statistical Analysis in Psychology
🧠 Unit 2: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.0Unit 2 Overview: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.1Interaction of Heredity and Environment
2.3Overview of the Nervous System and the Neuron
2.7Tools for Examining Brain Structure and Function
2.8The Adaptable Brain: Neural Fluidity
👀 Unit 3: Sensation and Perception
3.0Unit 3 Overview: Sensation and Perception
3.1Principles of Sensation
3.2Principles of Perception
3.5Auditory Sensation and Perception
📚 Unit 4: Learning
4.0Unit 4 Overview: Learning
🤔 Unit 5: Cognitive Psychology
5.0Unit 5 Overview: Cognitive Psychology
5.1Introduction to Memory
5.5Forgetting and Memory Distortion
5.6Biological Bases of Memory
5.7Introduction to Thinking and Problem Solving
5.8Biases and Errors in Thinking
5.9Introduction to Intelligence
5.10Psychometric Principles and Intelligence Testing
👶 Unit 6: Developmental Psychology
6.0Unit 6 Overview: Developmental Psychology
6.1The Lifespan and Physical Development in Childhood
6.2Social Development in Childhood
6.3Cognitive Development in Childhood
6.5Adulthood and Aging
🤪 Unit 7: Motivation, Emotion, & Personality
7.0Unit 7 Overview: Motivation, Emotion, and Personality
7.1Theories of Motivation
7.2Specific Topics in Motivation
7.3Theories of Emotion
7.4Stress and Coping
7.5Introduction to Personality
7.6Psychoanalytic Theories of Personality
7.7Behaviorism and Social Cognitive Theories of Personality
7.8Humanistic Theories of Personality
7.9Trait Theories of Personality
🛋 Unit 8: Clinical Psychology
8.0Unit 8 Overview: Clinical Psychology
8.1Introduction to Psychological Disorders
8.2Psychological Perspectives and Etiology of Disorders
8.3Neurodevelopmental and Schizophrenic Spectrum Disorders
8.4Bipolar, Depressive, Anxiety, and Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders
8.5Trauma- and Stressor Related, Dissociative, and Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders
8.6Feeding and Eating, Substance and Addictive, and Personality Disorders
8.7Introduction to Treatment of Psychological Disorders
8.8Psychological Perspectives and Treatment of Disorders
8.9Treatment of Disorders from the Biological Perspective
👫 Unit 9: Social Psychology
9.0Unit 9 Overview: Social Psychology
9.1Attribution Theory and Person Perception
9.2Attitude Formation and Attitude Change
9.3Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience
9.4Group Influences on Behavior and Mental Processes
9.5Bias, Prejudice, and Discrimination
9.6Altruism and Aggression
🧐 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
✍️ Free Response Questions (FRQ)
⏱️ 3 min read
November 11, 2020
We keep learning about how our memory works, but what part of the brain 🧠 is responsible for all of this? Let's find out.
The hippocampus is part of the limbic system and in the temporal lobe. The hippocampus is responsible for the formation of memory and processes explicit memories for storage. All memories start at the hippocampus; you can think of it as some sort of "save 💾 button."
After the information gets here, it migrates for storage elsewhere. Some specific facts about the hippocampus:
If there is damage to the left side, you will have trouble remembering verbal information 👄
If there is damage to the right side, you will have trouble recalling visual information 👀
Every region has a different function. For example, there is one region that puts names to faces and another region that engages with mnemonic devices 🌈
Sleep helps your memory consolidation and ensures it is processed.
During deep sleep (NREM-3), memories are processed. Interestingly enough, the brain replays the day's experiences and brings them to your LTM!
Information is sent to the frontal lobes for working memory. Your working memory is similar to STM, but it is the processing of incoming auditory and visual information. It helps make sense of new information and link it to the old information in your long-term memory.
Image Courtesy of Lumen Learning.
💡Fun Fact—You can damage your frontal lobe and hippocampus but still have the ability to lay down implicit memories, like tying your shoe 👞or riding a bike. 🚴
The cerebellum stores your implicit memories that are usually formed by classical conditioning and conditioned reflexes. Without a cerebellum, you wouldn't be able to learn from classical conditioning 🐶
You probably rarely hear of this, but it helps form our procedural memories, which is the "how to" type of implicit memory. We really have no idea how we remember things like tying our shoes 👞, but we can thank it all to our basal ganglia.
The amygdala has a lot to do with your emotion (i.e. fear and aggression 😨), but where does it come into play with memory?
Emotions actually affect how well we process a memory. Depending on our emotions, the brain could be fueled more by our hormones and the memory may stick with us longer.
You know that you always remember really exciting moments and really stressful moments, right? These always stick with us because of how strong of an emotion we were feeling at the time. These emotions release stress hormones and provoke the amygdala.
Think of them saying, "Something important is happening! We have to remember this!!" and other parts of the brain will be signaled to aid in the memory process.
No wonder why we remember big moments, like when we lost our loved ones or our first kiss—it just always sticks with us.
LTP is one of the newer terms in this key topic and it is the strengthening of synapses based on recent activities, producing long-lasting communication between neurons.
For example, if you practice coding using the programming language Python every day and rarely practice coding in Java, you are more likely to remember the Python and forget the Java.
Scientists know that LTP is the physical foundation for memory because:
Drugs 💊 that block long term potentiation interfere with and slow down learning.
If an experiment is done to block LTP, there is a loss of memory and learning 📖 shown.
Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers released by neurons that transmit messages between neurons. The chemical messages are interpreted and received in the neuron’s synapses.
Glutamate and acetylcholine are two neurotransmitters related to memory.
Hippocampus --> explicit memories
Frontal Lobes --> working memory
Cerebellum --> implicit memories
Basal Ganglia --> implicit procedural memories
Amygdala --> emotion—the stronger the emotion, the more likely we will remember something.
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