🔎 Unit 1: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.0Unit 1 Overview: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.1Introducing Psychology: The Historical Progression of Psychology
1.2Research Methods in Psychology
1.3The Experimental Method
1.5Statistical Analysis in Psychology
🧠 Unit 2: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.0Unit 2 Overview: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.1Interaction of Heredity and Environment
2.3Overview of the Nervous System and the Neuron
2.7Tools for Examining Brain Structure and Function
2.8The Adaptable Brain: Neural Fluidity
👀 Unit 3: Sensation and Perception
3.0Unit 3 Overview: Sensation and Perception
3.1Principles of Sensation
3.2Principles of Perception
3.5Auditory Sensation and Perception
📚 Unit 4: Learning
4.0Unit 4 Overview: Learning
🤔 Unit 5: Cognitive Psychology
5.0Unit 5 Overview: Cognitive Psychology
5.1Introduction to Memory
5.5Forgetting and Memory Distortion
5.6Biological Bases of Memory
5.7Introduction to Thinking and Problem Solving
5.8Biases and Errors in Thinking
5.9Introduction to Intelligence
5.10Psychometric Principles and Intelligence Testing
👶 Unit 6: Developmental Psychology
6.0Unit 6 Overview: Developmental Psychology
6.1The Lifespan and Physical Development in Childhood
6.2Social Development in Childhood
6.3Cognitive Development in Childhood
6.5Adulthood and Aging
🤪 Unit 7: Motivation, Emotion, & Personality
7.0Unit 7 Overview: Motivation, Emotion, and Personality
7.1Theories of Motivation
7.2Specific Topics in Motivation
7.3Theories of Emotion
7.4Stress and Coping
7.5Introduction to Personality
7.6Psychoanalytic Theories of Personality
7.7Behaviorism and Social Cognitive Theories of Personality
7.8Humanistic Theories of Personality
7.9Trait Theories of Personality
🛋 Unit 8: Clinical Psychology
8.0Unit 8 Overview: Clinical Psychology
8.1Introduction to Psychological Disorders
8.2Psychological Perspectives and Etiology of Disorders
8.3Neurodevelopmental and Schizophrenic Spectrum Disorders
8.4Bipolar, Depressive, Anxiety, and Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders
8.5Trauma- and Stressor Related, Dissociative, and Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders
8.6Feeding and Eating, Substance and Addictive, and Personality Disorders
8.7Introduction to Treatment of Psychological Disorders
8.8Psychological Perspectives and Treatment of Disorders
8.9Treatment of Disorders from the Biological Perspective
👫 Unit 9: Social Psychology
9.0Unit 9 Overview: Social Psychology
9.1Attribution Theory and Person Perception
9.2Attitude Formation and Attitude Change
9.3Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience
9.4Group Influences on Behavior and Mental Processes
9.5Bias, Prejudice, and Discrimination
9.6Altruism and Aggression
🧐 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
✍️ Free Response Questions (FRQ)
⏱️ 3 min read
November 11, 2020
The nervous system is our body’s speedy electrochemical messaging system. It is made up of both the peripheral and central nervous systems. The central nervous system (CNS) is composed of our brain🧠 and spinal cord🦴, while our peripheral nervous system (PNS) connects our sensory and motor neurons to the CNS.
As mentioned above, the CNS is composed of just the brain and spinal cord! The brain's neurons work in neural networks that send messages quickly.
A reflex is an automatic response often created by a signal neural pathway in our spinal cord. Reflexes are so quick and automatic because the message is received and responded to before our brain even has time to respond. The interneurons in the spinal cord enable this reflexive response.
The spinal cord is also a highway🛣️ connecting the peripheral nervous system and the brain.
The peripheral nervous system can be broken down further into the autonomic and somatic systems. The somatic nervous system is in charge of controlling voluntary movements of our skeletal muscles💪 - like covering your eye during an eye exam at the doctor. The autonomic nervous system then controls all automatic functions of our internal organs - like your heart beating❤️ and your lungs breathing.
The autonomic nervous system can be broken down further into two other systems, the sympathetic and parasympathetic. The sympathetic nervous system is our arousal system. When you get nervous before an exam your heart may race, and your breathing may become more rapid - this is thanks to the autonomic nervous system, which prepares us for action🏃. On the other hand, the parasympathetic nervous system returns us to a calm and neutral state once the stimuli that triggered our original arousal has subsided.
💡Sympathetic = "Fight or Flight"
💡Parasympathetic = "Rest and Digest"
Image courtesy to Wikimedia Commons
Image courtesy to Wikimedia Commons
Sensory neurons, sometimes referred to as afferent neurons, are what carry incoming sensory information into the brain and spinal cord (CNS). The sensory information is then processed by interneurons in the brain and spinal cord and then a message or response is carried back out through our motor, or efferent, neurons in our muscles and glands.
How do signals occur? How does our brain know what to do? Basically, action potential must occur for a message to continue to travel down the axon of a neuron, which is the messenger. This only occurs if the neuron’s threshold has been met - meaning it has received enough stimulation🔋 from the original sending neuron. If this threshold is met, the action potential occurs and the message travels down the axon via a process of depolarization. If the threshold is not met, nothing happens. Neurons have an all-or-none response - they either fire or they don’t.
Once the message has passed through the axon, it reaches the terminal branches. The terminal branches of a neuron contain neurotransmitters which are then released. These neurotransmitters cross the synaptic gaps between neurons and are gathered in by dendrites of a new neuron, continuing the communication process📩.
The synapse is where two neurons meet and neurotransmitters are released into it. There is both an electrical synapse, which relays quick🐆 messages to another cell, and a chemical synapse, which sends messages slowly🦥 to another cell.
2550 north lake drive
milwaukee, wi 53211
92% of Fiveable students earned a 3 or higher on their 2020 AP Exams.
*ap® and advanced placement® are registered trademarks of the college board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product.
© fiveable 2020 | all rights reserved.