🔎 Unit 1: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.0Unit 1 Overview: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.1Introducing Psychology: The Historical Progression of Psychology
1.2Research Methods in Psychology
1.3The Experimental Method
1.5Statistical Analysis in Psychology
🧠 Unit 2: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.0Unit 2 Overview: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.1Interaction of Heredity and Environment
2.3Overview of the Nervous System and the Neuron
2.7Tools for Examining Brain Structure and Function
2.8The Adaptable Brain: Neural Fluidity
👀 Unit 3: Sensation and Perception
3.0Unit 3 Overview: Sensation and Perception
3.1Principles of Sensation
3.2Principles of Perception
3.5Auditory Sensation and Perception
📚 Unit 4: Learning
4.0Unit 4 Overview: Learning
🤔 Unit 5: Cognitive Psychology
5.0Unit 5 Overview: Cognitive Psychology
5.1Introduction to Memory
5.5Forgetting and Memory Distortion
5.6Biological Bases of Memory
5.7Introduction to Thinking and Problem Solving
5.8Biases and Errors in Thinking
5.9Introduction to Intelligence
5.10Psychometric Principles and Intelligence Testing
👶 Unit 6: Developmental Psychology
6.0Unit 6 Overview: Developmental Psychology
6.1The Lifespan and Physical Development in Childhood
6.2Social Development in Childhood
6.3Cognitive Development in Childhood
6.5Adulthood and Aging
🤪 Unit 7: Motivation, Emotion, & Personality
7.0Unit 7 Overview: Motivation, Emotion, and Personality
7.1Theories of Motivation
7.2Specific Topics in Motivation
7.3Theories of Emotion
7.4Stress and Coping
7.5Introduction to Personality
7.6Psychoanalytic Theories of Personality
7.7Behaviorism and Social Cognitive Theories of Personality
7.8Humanistic Theories of Personality
7.9Trait Theories of Personality
🛋 Unit 8: Clinical Psychology
8.0Unit 8 Overview: Clinical Psychology
8.1Introduction to Psychological Disorders
8.2Psychological Perspectives and Etiology of Disorders
8.3Neurodevelopmental and Schizophrenic Spectrum Disorders
8.4Bipolar, Depressive, Anxiety, and Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders
8.5Trauma- and Stressor Related, Dissociative, and Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders
8.6Feeding and Eating, Substance and Addictive, and Personality Disorders
8.7Introduction to Treatment of Psychological Disorders
8.8Psychological Perspectives and Treatment of Disorders
8.9Treatment of Disorders from the Biological Perspective
👫 Unit 9: Social Psychology
9.0Unit 9 Overview: Social Psychology
9.1Attribution Theory and Person Perception
9.2Attitude Formation and Attitude Change
9.3Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience
9.4Group Influences on Behavior and Mental Processes
9.5Bias, Prejudice, and Discrimination
9.6Altruism and Aggression
🧐 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
✍️ Free Response Questions (FRQ)
⏱️ 4 min read
November 11, 2020
One unique trait of our brain involves the idea of plasticity. Plasticity is our brain’s ability to reorganize itself after an accident or tragedy OR modify itself in response to experience/a change. Since the brain is constantly forming new pathways, it can sometimes overcome a stroke or damage and regain skills that had been previously lost through this reorganization.
Our brain's ability to change like this helps account for why the blind have really good hearing senses and the deaf have amazing visual perception. Our minds are much smarter than you think.
If you experience major brain damage, our brain cannot regenerate neurons. Every part of the brain has its own function, so what happens if an essential part of your brain is damaged? Well, other parts of the brain actually help and take over the tasks of the damaged neurons. Your brain🧠 can easily adapt towards any change.
Another way that our brain adapts is through the process of neurogenesis. It is the growth and formation of new neurons, which can grow and form new connections. Neurogenesis, in essence, can heal💖 the brain.
Consciousness💭 is our awareness of ourselves and the environment🌳 There are different states of consciousness: spontaneously, physiologically, and psychologically.
Spontaneously: Daydreaming, Drowsiness, Dreaming💭
Physiologically: Hallucinations, Orgasm, Food/Oxygen Deprivation🍔🍕
Psychologically: Sensory Deprivation, Hypnosis, Meditation🧘
Although you are limited to what you see and are aware of, other events can influence your consciousness. Psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud divided human consciousness into three different awareness levels:
Your preconscious is out of your awareness, but anything within your preconscious could easily be recalled. For example if somebody asked you what you ate for breakfast🥓🍳 in the morning, you would be able to recall this information and spit it back to them, but it wasn’t in your awareness prior to them asking you about it.
Your unconscious, according to psychoanalysts, is a level of consciousness that includes all of your “unacceptable” thoughts and feelings, often sexual. You are processing this information unconsciously or without any awareness.
And your conscious which is everything you see👀, hear👂, touch✋, taste👅, or smell👃
Image Courtesy of Verywell Mind
People who study cognitive neuroscience are interested in the biological processes that create our ability to think, particularly through the various neural connections that exist in the brain.
Another interesting aspect that goes into how we think is our brain’s dual processing capabilities. We can only take in and pay attention to a few things at a time, however, that doesn’t mean we have completely missed the information. Oftentimes information is processed via an unconscious track where we may be able to access it later even though we didn’t consciously attend to it.
In key topic 2.5, we went over the three classifications of drugs. Let's quickly go more in depth about the way drugs affect us:
With substance use disorder comes addiction. By definition, addiction is the compulsive craving of a drug or behaviors, such as gambling. Although people are aware of the consequences of addiction, it is very difficult to withdraw from substance use.
There are two different types of dependence and addiction: psychological and physiological. Psychological dependence is your desire for the drug, simply saying “I want it,” increasing your tolerance.
Physiological dependence develops when the brain needs the drug in order to avoid withdrawal symptoms. In other words, physiological dependence is the brain’s addiction to the drug.
Tolerance is the diminishing effect of a drug when taking the same dose of it. In order to feel the effect a drug user is aching for, they must take a greater dosage.
For example, you may drink 5 ounces of wine🍷 your first time drinking it and you may get drunk. However, as you continue to drink it, you may need to drink even more🍷🍷🍷 to obtain the same effects because your brain and body get used to the drug.
The only drug that you cannot develop a tolerance for is marijuana.
So what happens if someone attempts to stop their drug addiction? Unfortunately, it’s very difficult. Since the body is so used to receiving the drug, it doesn’t know how to do without it. Withdrawal is basically the discomfort and distress that occurs if you stop taking a drug.
If your body was physiologically dependent on the drug, it is used to having this certain chemical within it. When the drug acts as a neurotransmitter for so long, the brain might even stop producing that neurotransmitter. Therefore, your body continues to long for the effects of the drug in order to “operate” and without it, there are consequences.
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