🔎 Unit 1: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.0Unit 1 Overview: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.1Introducing Psychology: The Historical Progression of Psychology
1.2Research Methods in Psychology
1.3The Experimental Method
1.5Statistical Analysis in Psychology
🧠 Unit 2: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.0Unit 2 Overview: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.1Interaction of Heredity and Environment
2.3Overview of the Nervous System and the Neuron
2.7Tools for Examining Brain Structure and Function
2.8The Adaptable Brain: Neural Fluidity
👀 Unit 3: Sensation and Perception
3.0Unit 3 Overview: Sensation and Perception
3.1Principles of Sensation
3.2Principles of Perception
3.5Auditory Sensation and Perception
📚 Unit 4: Learning
4.0Unit 4 Overview: Learning
🤔 Unit 5: Cognitive Psychology
5.0Unit 5 Overview: Cognitive Psychology
5.1Introduction to Memory
5.5Forgetting and Memory Distortion
5.6Biological Bases of Memory
5.7Introduction to Thinking and Problem Solving
5.8Biases and Errors in Thinking
5.9Introduction to Intelligence
5.10Psychometric Principles and Intelligence Testing
👶 Unit 6: Developmental Psychology
6.0Unit 6 Overview: Developmental Psychology
6.1The Lifespan and Physical Development in Childhood
6.2Social Development in Childhood
6.3Cognitive Development in Childhood
6.5Adulthood and Aging
🤪 Unit 7: Motivation, Emotion, & Personality
7.0Unit 7 Overview: Motivation, Emotion, and Personality
7.1Theories of Motivation
7.2Specific Topics in Motivation
7.3Theories of Emotion
7.4Stress and Coping
7.5Introduction to Personality
7.6Psychoanalytic Theories of Personality
7.7Behaviorism and Social Cognitive Theories of Personality
7.8Humanistic Theories of Personality
7.9Trait Theories of Personality
🛋 Unit 8: Clinical Psychology
8.0Unit 8 Overview: Clinical Psychology
8.1Introduction to Psychological Disorders
8.2Psychological Perspectives and Etiology of Disorders
8.3Neurodevelopmental and Schizophrenic Spectrum Disorders
8.4Bipolar, Depressive, Anxiety, and Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders
8.5Trauma- and Stressor Related, Dissociative, and Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders
8.6Feeding and Eating, Substance and Addictive, and Personality Disorders
8.7Introduction to Treatment of Psychological Disorders
8.8Psychological Perspectives and Treatment of Disorders
8.9Treatment of Disorders from the Biological Perspective
👫 Unit 9: Social Psychology
9.0Unit 9 Overview: Social Psychology
9.1Attribution Theory and Person Perception
9.2Attitude Formation and Attitude Change
9.3Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience
9.4Group Influences on Behavior and Mental Processes
9.5Bias, Prejudice, and Discrimination
9.6Altruism and Aggression
🧐 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
✍️ Free Response Questions (FRQ)
⏱️ 4 min read
July 27, 2020
There are various types of research methods in psychology with different purposes, strengths, and weaknesses.
|Experiments🧪||Manipulates one or more independent variables to determine the effects of certain behavior.||(1) can determine cause and effect (2) can be retested and proven||(1) could have potential ethical issues (2) artificial environment creates low realism (people know they are being researched, which could impact what they say and do)|
|Correlational Studies📈||Involves looking at the relationships between two or more variables, is used when performing an experiment is not possible.||(1) easier to conduct than an experiment (2) can be used when an experiment is impossible. For example, a researcher may want to examine the relationship between school grades and adderall. It would not be ethical to force students to take high doses of adderall. So, one can only rely on participants’ responses||cannot determine cause and effect|
|Survey Research💭||The collection of information reported by people about a particular topic.||(1) cost effective (2) mostly reliable||(1) low response rates (2) can’t verify the accuracy of an individual’s response|
|Naturalistic Observations👀||A researcher observes a subject's behavior without intervention.||natural setting is more reliable than a lab setting||(1) people behave differently when they know they are being watched which could impact the results (Hawthorne effect) (2) two researchers could see the same behavior but draw different conclusions|
|Case Studies||A case study is an in-depth study of an individual or a small group. Usually, case studies are done on people with rare circumstances. For example, a girl named Genie was locked in her room causing a delay in development. Researchers did a case study about her to understand more about language and human development stages.||provides detailed information||(1) cannot generalize results to a wider population (2) difficult to replicate (3) time-consuming|
|Longitudinal Studies ↔️||The same individuals are studied over a long period of time can be years up to decades.||(1) can show effects of changes over time (2) more powerful than cross-sectional studies||(1) require large amounts of time (2) expensive💰|
|Cross-Sectional Studies||A cross-sectional study examines people of different groups at the same time. For example, studying people that are different ages at the same time differences can be attributed to age.||(1) quick and easy to conduct (2) generalizable results||(1) difficult to find a population that differs by only one factor (2) cannot measure changes over time|
Whenever researchers want to prove or find causation, they would run an experiment.
An experiment you'll learn about in unit 9 that was run by Solomon Asch investigated the extent to which one would conform to a group's ideas.
Image Courtesy of Wikipedia.
Each person in the room would have to look at these lines above and state which one they thought was of similar length to the original line. The answer was of course obvious, but Asch wanted to see if the "real participant" would conform to the views of the rest of the group.
Asch gathered together what we could call "fake participants" and told them not to say line C. The "real participant" would then hear wrong answers, but they didn't want to be the odd one out, so they conformed with the rest of the group and represented the majority view.
In this experiment, the "real participant" was the control group and about 75% of them, over 12 trials, conformed at least once.
There could be a correlational study between anything. Say you wanted to see if there was an association between the number of hours a teenager sleeps and their grades in high school. If there was a correlation, we couldn't say the more hours slept 💤, the higher the grades are, but we could say that they go hand in hand 🤝 together.
Surveys are used all the time, especially in advertising and marketing. They are often distributed to a large number of people and results are returned back to researchers.
If a student wanted to observe how many people fully stop at a stop sign, they could watch the cars from a distance and record their data. This is a naturalistic observation, since the student is in no way influencing the results.
Other than the example in the table, here is another one:
A man named Phineas Gage was working near the railroad when an iron rod penetrated his cheek through his skull and brain.
Image Courtesy of Vermont Journal.
This is a case study, since he is an individual with a unique circumstance. Gage actually survived this but his whole personality changed since part of his brain was altered. They did a case study to learn more about the impact of this incident.
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