|Experiments🧪||Manipulates one or more independent variables to determine the effects of certain behavior.||(1) can determine cause and effect (2) can be retested and proven||(1) could have potential ethical issues (2) artificial environment creates low realism (people know they are being researched, which could impact what they say and do)|
|Correlational Studies📈||Involves looking at the relationships between two or more variables, is used when performing an experiment is not possible.||(1) easier to conduct than an experiment (2) can be used when an experiment is impossible. For example, a researcher may want to examine the relationship between school grades and adderall. It would not be ethical to force students to take high doses of adderall. So, one can only rely on participants’ responses||cannot determine cause and effect|
|Survey Research💭||The collection of information reported by people about a particular topic.||(1) cost effective (2) mostly reliable||(1) low response rates (2) can’t verify the accuracy of an individual’s response|
|Naturalistic Observations👀||A researcher observes a subject's behavior without intervention.||natural setting is more reliable than a lab setting||(1) people behave differently when they know they are being watched which could impact the results (Hawthorne effect) (2) two researchers could see the same behavior but draw different conclusions|
|Case Studies||A case study is an in-depth study of an individual or a small group. Usually, case studies are done on people with rare circumstances. For example, a girl named Genie was locked in her room causing a delay in development. Researchers did a case study about her to understand more about language and human development stages.||provides detailed information||(1) cannot generalize results to a wider population (2) difficult to replicate (3) time-consuming|
|Longitudinal Studies ↔️||The same individuals are studied over a long period of time can be years up to decades.||(1) can show effects of changes over time (2) more powerful than cross-sectional studies||(1) require large amounts of time (2) expensive💰|
|Cross-Sectional Studies||A cross-sectional study examines people of different groups at the same time. For example, studying people that are different ages at the same time differences can be attributed to age.||(1) quick and easy to conduct (2) generalizable results||(1) difficult to find a population that differs by only one factor (2) cannot measure changes over time|
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