ap music theory
🎵 Unit 1: Music Fundamentals I: Pitch, Major Scales and Key Signatures, Rhythm, Meter, and Expressive Elements
1.1Pitch and Pitch Notation 🎼
🎶 Unit 2: Music Fundamentals II: Minor Scales and Key Signatures, Melody, Timbre, and Texture
2.1Minor Scales: Natural, Harmonic, and Melodic
2.2Relative Keys: Determining Relative Minor Key and Notating Key Signatures
2.3Key Relationships: Parallel, Closely Related, and Distantly Related Keys
2.4Other Scales: Chromatic, Whole-Tone, and Pentatonic
🎻 Unit 3: Music Fundamentals III: Triads and Seventh Chords
3.1Triad and Chord Qualities (M, m, d, A)
3.3Chord Inversions and Figures: Introduction to Figured Bass
🎹 Unit 4: Harmony and Voice Leading I: Chord Function, Cadence, and Phrase
4.3Harmonic Progression, Functional Harmony, and Cadences
4.4Voice Leading with Seventh Chords
🎸 Unit 5: Harmony and Voice Leading II: Chord Progressions and Predominant Function
5.1Adding Predominant Function IV (iv) and ii (ii0) to a Melodic Phrase
📝 Exam Skills
AP Music Theory Free Response Help - FRQ/LEQ
⏱️ 3 min read
November 2, 2020
In addition to the major and minor scales, there are a couple of other important scales that appear in various types of music. We need to be able to identify these scales by ear 👂 and by sight 👀.
Chromatic scale: this scale incorporates every single note possible! In other words, it ascends and descends entirely by half-steps. This means that in one octave, there are 12 different pitches (13 when you resolve to the original pitch, an octave higher or lower.)
Here is what is looks like:
And going down:
There is not a strict rule for whether you use sharps or flats, upwards or downwards, or a combination of both. The most important guideline is that there is only a half-step between the notes.
The next unique scale is the whole-tone scale. Like the chromatic scale that only uses half-steps, the whole-tone scale only uses whole-steps.
In addition, you can identify the whole-tone scale by eye 👀 because it only has 6 different scale degrees, versus 7 in a major or minor scale. Remember that the last note in the examples are the resolution of the scale (the tonic), so it repeats the original pitch of the scale. If we include the tonic again, all major and minor scales have 8 notes total, and the whole-note scale would have 7.
Here is the whole-tone scale in treble clef:
And in the bass clef:
Whole-tone scales can either use sharps or flats, but the most important definition of the scale is that every interval in the scale is a whole-step.
There is one more type of scale that lives outside the major and minor (and other modes) <hyperlink to Unit 8> which is called the pentatonic scale.
The prefix "pent" is Latin (and Greek 🇬🇷) for 5, and it tells us that this scale is built with five different pitches.
There are two different types of pentatonic scales, both major and minor. In the table below, both the major and minor pentatonic scales can be constructed by using a regular major scale. See how you alter the notes:
(m3 = minor 3rd) (WS = whole step)
Below is a written example of a minor pentatonic scale, starting on A.
Next you can view the major pentatonic scale starting on D:
➡️ For the AP® Test, you will not be tested on the difference between a major and minor pentatonic scale, you just need to know that a scale with five notes WILL be a pentatonic scale!
Fun fact! You can take the minor pentatonic scale, add one note to it (between the 3rd and 4th notes of the above MINOR example, add an Eb/D#) and you suddenly have the blues scale.
🦜 Polly wants a progress tracker: How many notes does the chromatic scale have? How about the whole-tone scale? And finally the pentatonic scale?
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