ap music theory
🎵 Unit 1: Music Fundamentals I: Pitch, Major Scales and Key Signatures, Rhythm, Meter, and Expressive Elements
1.1Pitch and Pitch Notation 🎼
🎶 Unit 2: Music Fundamentals II: Minor Scales and Key Signatures, Melody, Timbre, and Texture
2.1Minor Scales: Natural, Harmonic, and Melodic
2.2Relative Keys: Determining Relative Minor Key and Notating Key Signatures
2.3Key Relationships: Parallel, Closely Related, and Distantly Related Keys
2.4Other Scales: Chromatic, Whole-Tone, and Pentatonic
🎻 Unit 3: Music Fundamentals III: Triads and Seventh Chords
3.1Triad and Chord Qualities (M, m, d, A)
3.3Chord Inversions and Figures: Introduction to Figured Bass
🎹 Unit 4: Harmony and Voice Leading I: Chord Function, Cadence, and Phrase
4.3Harmonic Progression, Functional Harmony, and Cadences
4.4Voice Leading with Seventh Chords
🎸 Unit 5: Harmony and Voice Leading II: Chord Progressions and Predominant Function
5.1Adding Predominant Function IV (iv) and ii (ii0) to a Melodic Phrase
📝 Exam Skills
AP Music Theory Multiple Choice Help (MCQ)
⏱️ 2 min read
November 2, 2020
The major scales we discovered in Unit 1 <hyperlink to Unit 1.4> each have a minor scale that is based on the notes of the major scale. In fact, with a few alterations, there are three types of minor scales that are relative to its major key.
Let's take a major key, such as C. What happens if you keep the same key signature?
Reminder: in the key of C, there are no flats or sharps!
What if instead of starting the C scale on C, you started it in on A?
Welcome to the world of relative minor.
Specifically, what is the interval between a C and an A below it?
Answer: it's a minor 3rd, or 3 half-steps away.
There you have it! A relative minor key keeps the same key signature as its relative major, but starts the scale a minor third below the major.
But wait, there are actually THREE different types of minor scales!
Let's check them out!
1) Natural minor: for this scale, you do not alter any of the pitches. All the pitches that are in the relative major scale will be used in this relative minor scale, you just start the scale a minor 3rd down from the major key.
If we are in the major key of D major, here is a D major scale:
Here is D major's relative MINOR, the b minor scale:
2) The second type of minor scale is the harmonic minor scale. In the relative minor key, you will raise the 7th scale degree by a half-step. Keeping in the key of b minor like above, the scale will look like this:
3) The last type of minor scale is the melodic minor scale. This scale is audibly distinct, in that the scale going upwards is different than the scale going downwards. Specifically, the 6th and 7th scale degrees are raised by a half step when going up. This makes the scale sound like it is briefly in a major key. Going downwards, however, the scale takes on the natural minor pitches, so the raised 6th and 7th scales degrees are canceled.
🦜 Polly wants a progress tracker: Can you identify by ear what type of minor scales are below?
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