ap music theory study guides

2.5 Interval Size and Quality

#intervals

#tritone

#augmented

#minor

#aural

โฑ๏ธย ย 2 min read

written by

Mickey Hansen

mickey hansen

Caroline Koffke

caroline koffke

(editor)

November 2, 2020


2.5: Interval Size and Quality

An interval is the distance in pitch between two notes. It is determined by two factors: size and quality. Interval size is the numerical distance between the two pitches if you were simply counting staff lines.

These are all of the intervals within an octave:

https://firebasestorage.googleapis.com/v0/b/fiveable-92889.appspot.com/o/images%2F-CU6c79rJiHv9.png?alt=media&token=fac56093-4b47-439c-b5a7-b619a08a3380

Listen to the different intervals in an octave!

If you count the lines and spaces from one note to the other (including the line or space that each note is on), you will find the interval size! Counting lines and spaces can be a bit tedious, so luckily there are some tips you can use to recognize intervals more quickly.

โžก๏ธ Odd-numbered intervals are both on lines or both on spaces

โžก๏ธEven-numbered intervals are on opposites (one line, one space)

Interval quality can be major, minor, perfect, augmented or diminished.

Within the octave there are certain intervals that are perfect and certain intervals that are major or minor. Both of these intervals can also be augmented (raised by a semitone) or diminished (lowered by a semitone).

https://firebasestorage.googleapis.com/v0/b/fiveable-92889.appspot.com/o/images%2F-H6Zp0RW2YxGo.webp?alt=media&token=823e56c9-162f-4cdf-95f3-2c00a399a52e

The four perfect intervals are unison, 4ths, 5ths and octaves (8ths). All of the other intervals (2nds, 3rds, 6ths, 7ths) are major or minor. Again, these intervals can all be augmented or diminished as well.

There are also a few intervals that are referred to by unique names, such as the tritone (diminished 5th/augmented 4th), unison, and the octave.

Here is what a tritone sounds like:

https://firebasestorage.googleapis.com/v0/b/fiveable-92889.appspot.com/o/images%2F-o9UY5uBm7aLZ.png?alt=media&token=e2fada1d-2fa6-42c9-9bc8-9cd2d98a56f1

Listen to an example of a Tritone!

This is a unison:

https://firebasestorage.googleapis.com/v0/b/fiveable-92889.appspot.com/o/images%2F-vpZYAgUxVkny.png?alt=media&token=17bd756a-6bb9-44b2-8364-c96d07fe06e3

Listen to an example of Unison!

And this is an octave:

https://firebasestorage.googleapis.com/v0/b/fiveable-92889.appspot.com/o/images%2F-kkCtUy9Hdwg3.png?alt=media&token=b53470d7-8156-4fea-b22a-939d834fa1f6

Listen to an example of an octave!

Intervals show up in music in two different ways: harmonic intervals and melodic intervals. Harmonic intervals are two notes played at the same time, while melodic intervals are played one after another. In the last few audio examples, we first heard melodic intervals, then harmonic intervals.

You might have heard the terms consonance and dissonance in music before, usually to describe a chord, but it's important to understand where those terms come from. Intervals are also consonant or dissonant depending on how stable they are. Consonant intervals like perfect 5ths are very stable and don't feel the need to resolve or move. While dissonant intervals like the tritone (diminished 5th) have a strong pull to resolve to a more stable interval.

Here is a tritone vs. a perfect 5th:

Listen to the difference between Tritones and Perfect 5ths!

๐Ÿฆœ Polly wants a progress tracker: What is the interval from Ab to D? Or B# to E#? ๐Ÿ˜‰

continue learning

Slide 1 of 14
Fiveable

Join Our Community

Fiveable Community students are already meeting new friends, starting study groups, and sharing tons of opportunities for other high schoolers. Soon the Fiveable Community will be on a totally new platform where you can share, save, and organize your learning links and lead study groups among other students!๐ŸŽ‰

Fiveable Logo

2550 north lake drive
suite 2
milwaukee, wi 53211

92% of Fiveable students earned a 3 or higher on their 2020 AP Exams.

*apยฎ and advanced placementยฎ are registered trademarks of the college board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product.

ยฉ fiveable 2020 | all rights reserved.