🚀 Thematic Guides
Theme 1 (NAT) - American and National Identity
Theme 2 (WXT) - Work, Exchange, and Technology
Theme 3 (GEO) - Geography and The Environment
Theme 4 (MIG) - Migration and Settlement
Theme 5 (PCE) - Politics and Power
Theme 7 (ARC) - American and Regional Culture
Theme 8 (SOC): Social Structures
🌽 Unit 1: 1491-1607
1.1Context: European Encounters in the Americas
1.6Cultural Interactions Between Europeans, Native Americans, and Africans
🦃 Unit 2: 1607-1754
2.0Unit 2 Overview: Contextualization
2.3The Regions of the British Colonies
2.5Interactions between Native Americans and Europeans
2.6Slavery in the Colonies
🔫 Unit 3: 1754-1800
3.6The Influence of Revolutionary Ideals
3.10Shaping a New Republic
🐎 Unit 4: 1800-1848
4.2The Rise of Political Parties and the Era of Jefferson
4.3Politics and Regional Interests
4.8Jackson and Federal Power
4.9The Development of an American Culture
4.10The Second Great Awakening
4.11the age of reform
4.12African Americans in the Early Republic
💣 Unit 5: 1844-1877
5.5Sectional Conflict: Regional Differences
5.6Failure of Compromise
5.7Election of 1860 and Secession
5.9Government Policies during the Civil War
🚂 Unit 6: 1865-1898
6.2Westward Expansion: Economic Development
6.3Westward Expansion Social and Cultural Development
6.6The Rise of Industrial Capitalism
6.7Labor in the Gilded Age
6.9Responses to Immigration
🌎 Unit 7: 1890-1945
7.0Unit 7 Overview: Contextualization
7.3The Spanish-American War
7.5World War I: Military and Diplomacy
7.6World War I: Home Front
7.81920s: Cultural and Political Controversies
7.9The Great Depression
7.10The New Deal
7.11Interwar Foreign Policy
7.12World War II: Mobilization
🥶 Unit 8: 1945-1980
8.2The Cold War from 1945-1980
8.3The Red Scare
8.4Economy after 1945
8.6Early Steps in the Civil Rights Movement
8.7America as a World Power
8.8The Vietnam War
8.10The African American Civil Rights Movement
8.11The Expansion of the Civil Rights Movement
📲 Unit 9: 1980-Present
9.0Unit 9 Overview: Contextualization
9.2Reagan and Conservatism
9.3The End of the Cold War
9.6Challenges of the 21st Century
🧐 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
📋 Short Answer Questions (SAQ)
⏱️ 3 min read
September 18, 2020
Impressment remained a big issue for America. British ships would take American crew as their prisoners, impressing them into the service of the Royal Navy. It violated American neutrality.
Orders in Council forbid neutral ships from trading with Britain’s enemies, and France retaliated by stating that all ships trading with Britain or following Orders will be seized. As a result, American ships were also seized by the French. Both violated US sovereignty and free trade rights.
The attack of the Chesapeake caused such furor in the hearts of Americans that even eighty years after the incident, an artist sketched this drawing of the event. Fred S. Cozzens, The incident between HMS “Leopard” and USS “Chesapeake” that sparked the Chesapeake-Leopard Affair, 1897. Wikimedia.
The Chesapeake affair occurred in 1807 when a British warship, the Leopard, attacked an American warship, the Chesapeake. With three sailors killed and four others forced into the British navy, Americans demanded war, but Jefferson responded with “peaceful coercion.” Basically, the idea was that if the two countries refused to respect the rights of the neutral US, the US would keep its ships at home.
Jefferson’s answer was The Embargo Act, which prohibited all American overseas trade. Jefferson wanted economic pressure to force British to change, but this plan backfired. It had worked to an extent, but Britain found new sources instead. It actually led to disaster for America, backfiring on Jefferson.
The British had little difficulty substituting supplies from the US with ones from South America. The effect on the American economy was devastating, especially for shipbuilders in New England. Jefferson would call for its repeal in the final days of his presidency.
🎥 Watch: AP US History - Jeffersonian Republic
America successfully negotiated with Britain on impressment, but it took too long for the news to reach the US. Congress had already declared war by the time the news reached them. Major causes of the War of 1812 (which actually lasted until 1814) were:
Impressment and trade on the seas
Western frontier pressures where the British were encouraging Natives to attack Americans.
War Hawks in Congress, who were young Democratic-Republicans from frontier states and were eager with war with Britain. They were led by Henry Clay and John Calhoun.
America failed to invade British Canada, and Britain blocked the American coast, which hurt the American economy. Britain became successful in invading Maryland. In Baltimore, at the famous Battle of Fort McHenry, Francis Scott Key penned the words of the Star Spangled Banner as the fort held out against the bombardment overnight.
The British then marched into the capital with little opposition. In response to Americans burning the Canadian capital of York (Toronto), the British burned the White House and Capitol building.
Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans. The peace treaty had already been negotiated, but due to the speed of communication, it was not realized that the war was already over. Jackson became a national hero.
The Treaty of Ghent, ending the war, did the following:
Halted the fighting
Returned all conquered territory to the prewar areas
Recognized prewar borders of the US and Canada.
So basically, nothing was won out of the war.
The war did show that America was competent enough, allowing European nations to take America more seriously. Both Jackson and Harrison became national heroes due to their leadership roles in the military. It also stimulated manufacturing in America.
In 1814, a group of New England Federalists gathered in Hartford, Connecticut. They recommended the following changes to the Constitution:
Allow secession of the states (the delegates later turned this down)
Require a ⅔ majority of Congress to declare war
New procedures on admitting new states.
However, shortly after the convention, news spread of Jackson’s victory and the end of the war, which stamped the Federalists as unpatriotic and further weakened them.
One of the three key principles of the Monroe Doctrine stated that America would stay out of European wars unless directly impacted. Also, European nations would not make any new colonies or attempt to take back control over former colonies in the Americas. Last, America would count any European colonization attempt in the Western Hemisphere to be an “unfriendly act.”
🎥 Watch: AP US History - Era of Good Feelings
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