It is possible to artificially alter, modify, manipulate, and analyze DNA and RNA. Scientists use quite a few techniques:
Electrophoresis: molecules are separated by size and not charge. DNA is negatively charged (because of the phosphate groups), and therefore the longer strands will migrate towards the positive end of the chamber. Through this, the number, size, and relative abundance of DNA fragments can be determined.
2️⃣ Polymerase Chain Reaction
DNA fragments can be amplified during polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
3️⃣ Foreign DNA
“Foreign” DNA is introduced to bacterial cells, so it will replicate it as its own. The byproduct will then be more abundant than it would naturally occur. For example, this has been used to make insulin.
4️⃣ DNA Sequencing
Scientists have also used DNA sequencing to determine and analyze the order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule. This is used to study genetic disorders.