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Unit 6

6.2 Replication

#helicase

#topoisomerase

#polymerase

#dna

#rna


written by

Samantha Himegarner

samantha himegarner

published on april 3, 2020

Last updated on May 31, 2020

Replication is the process in which genetic information is passed on to the next generation. In eukaryotes, this process takes place in the nucleus of the cell. Because prokaryotes do not have a nucleus, this process occurs in the cytoplasm. This is a multi-step process that employs the help of multiple enzymes.

๐Ÿงฌ DNA and RNA

Helicase unwinds the DNA strands so that the topoisomerase can relax the coil in front of the replication fork. DNA polymerase reads the conserved DNA strand to synthesize new strands of DNA. RNA primers work with the DNA polymerase to build the complementary strand.

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The Leading Strand

Replication is a โ€œsemiconservativeโ€ process, meaning it conserves one strand of DNA, unchanged, to serve as a template to create another. The DNA is processed in the 5โ€™ โ†’ 3โ€™ direction, or what is called the leading strand. DNA polymerase works continuously on the Leading Strand but has to work in sections on the lagging strand (because it is 3โ€™ โ†’ 5โ€™). These sections are known as Okazaki fragments. Ligase then connects these fragments on the lagging strand.

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