✍️ Free Response Questions
AP Chemistry Free Response Questions
⚛️ Unit 1 - Atomic Structure and Properties
1.1Moles and Molar Mass
1.2Mass Spectroscopy of Elements
1.3Elemental Composition of Pure Substances
1.4Composition of Mixtures
1.5Atomic Structure and Electron Configurations
1.6Photoelectron Spectroscopy & Graph Interp.
🤓 Unit 2 - Molecular and Ionic Compound Structures and Properties
2.0Unit 2 Overview: Molecular and Ionic Bonding
2.1Types of Chemical Bonds
2.2Intramolecular Force and Potential Energy
2.3Ionic Bonding and Ionic Solids
2.4Metallic Bonding and Alloys
2.5Lewis Dot Diagrams
2.6Resonance and Formal Charge
🌀 Unit 3 - Intermolecular Forces and Properties
3.0Unit 3 Overview: Intermolecular Forces and Properties
3.2Properties of Solids
3.3Solids, Liquids, and Gases
3.4The Ideal Gas Law
3.5The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases
3.6Deviations from the Ideal Gas Law
3.7Mixtures and Solutions
3.8Representations of Solutions
3.9Separation of Solids/Mixtures
3.10Solubility and Solubility Rules
3.11Spectroscopy and the Electromagnetic Spectrum
3.12Quantum Mechanics and the Photoelectric Effect
🧪 Unit 4 - Chemical Reactions
4.0Unit 4 Overview: Chemical Reactions
4.1Recognizing Chemical Reactions
4.2Net Ionic Equations
4.4Physical vs. Chemical Changes
4.5Stoichiometry & Calculations
4.6Titrations - Intro and Calculations
4.8Intro to Acid-Base Neutralization Reactions
👟 Unit 5 - Kinetics
5.0Unit 5 Overview: Kinetics
5.1Defining Rate of Reaction
5.2Introduction to Rate Laws
5.3Rate and Concentration Change
5.4Writing Rate Laws
5.5Collision Model of Kinetics
5.6Reaction Energy and Graphs w/ Energy
5.7Reaction Mechanisms and Elementary Steps
5.8Writing Rate Laws Using Mechanisms
🔥 Unit 6 - Thermodynamics
6.0 Unit 6 Overview: Thermochemistry and Reaction Thermodynamics
6.1Endothermic Processes vs. Exothermic Processes
6.2Energy Diagrams of Reactions
6.3Kinetic Energy, Heat Transfer, and Thermal Equilibrium
6.4Heat Capacity and Coffee-Cup Calorimetry
6.5Phase Changes and Energy
6.6Introduction to Enthalpy of Reaction
6.7Bond Enthalpy and Bond Dissociation Energy
6.8Enthalpies of Formation
⚖️ Unit 7 - Equilibrium
🍊 Unit 8 - Acids and Bases
8.0Unit 8 Overview: Acids and Bases
8.1Introduction to Acids and Bases
Unit 9 - Applications of Thermodynamics
🤺 AP Chemistry Essentials
🧐 Multiple Choice Questions
AP Chemistry Self-Study and Homeschool
⏱️ 2 min read
August 6, 2020
Scientists began to understand light and the way light works by analyzing light that was emitted or absorbed by substances.
The light we see with our eyes👀, visible light, is one type of electromagnetic radiation; because electromagnetic radiation carries through space, it is also known as radiant energy.
Light is carried in the form of photons, a type of quantum particle that acts as a "force carrying particle" for electromagnetic energy. For example, when you turn on a flashlight🔦, trillions of photons shoot out, creating a beam of light that illuminates a dark area. The same concept is applied in lasers and in many incredibly important measurements involving concentrations of solutions, as we'll see in Unit 3.13.
😲Fun fact! The word LASER is actually an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation ⚡
We'll get a deeper understanding of what light really is and its role in the quantum world in Unit 3.12.
When we discuss light, we typically refer to its wavelength and its frequency. These two terms can help us describe how light will act. Light is an interesting quantum idea because of the fact that it acts both as a particle (the photon) and as a wave. This is called particle-wave duality.
When thinking of a wave, it is useful to visualize it as a sine wave, oscillating back and forth periodically. Wavelength(λ) is just that - the length of one period of the wave. This can be described either as the peak to peak distance, or the zero to zero distance.
Frequency(ν) describes the number of waves that pass a fixed place in a given amount of time and is measured in per-seconds (s^-1) or Hertz (Hz). Frequency and wavelength have an inverse relationship. Essentially, a high wavelength implies a small frequency and vice versa.
Image Courtesy of Florida State College
This is further explained in the electromagnetic spectrum which ranges from very short gamma rays to very long radio waves. A key trend to note is that electromagnetic radiation can be characterized by a wavelength; the shorter the wavelength, the higher the frequency.
Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction of radiant energy and matter. The electromagnetic spectrum diagram is shown below to use a reference.
Image Courtesy of Khan Academy
There are a few things to notice about the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum:
It is broken up into sections based on wavelength from ten-thousandths of nanometers long to hundreds of meters long.
On the visible light spectrum: purple💜 has the shortest wavelength while red❤️ has the longest wavelength
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