🔎 Unit 1: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.0Unit 1 Overview: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.1Introducing Psychology: The Historical Progression of Psychology
1.2Research Methods in Psychology
1.3The Experimental Method
1.5Statistical Analysis in Psychology
🧠 Unit 2: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.0Unit 2 Overview: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.1Interaction of Heredity and Environment
2.3Overview of the Nervous System and the Neuron
2.7Tools for Examining Brain Structure and Function
2.8The Adaptable Brain: Neural Fluidity
👀 Unit 3: Sensation and Perception
3.0Unit 3 Overview: Sensation and Perception
3.1Principles of Sensation
3.2Principles of Perception
3.5Auditory Sensation and Perception
📚 Unit 4: Learning
4.0Unit 4 Overview: Learning
🤔 Unit 5: Cognitive Psychology
5.0Unit 5 Overview: Cognitive Psychology
5.1Introduction to Memory
5.5Forgetting and Memory Distortion
5.6Biological Bases of Memory
5.7Introduction to Thinking and Problem Solving
5.8Biases and Errors in Thinking
5.9Introduction to Intelligence
5.10Psychometric Principles and Intelligence Testing
👶 Unit 6: Developmental Psychology
6.0Unit 6 Overview: Developmental Psychology
6.1The Lifespan and Physical Development in Childhood
6.2Social Development in Childhood
6.3Cognitive Development in Childhood
6.5Adulthood and Aging
🤪 Unit 7: Motivation, Emotion, & Personality
7.0Unit 7 Overview: Motivation, Emotion, and Personality
7.1Theories of Motivation
7.2Specific Topics in Motivation
7.3Theories of Emotion
7.4Stress and Coping
7.5Introduction to Personality
7.6Psychoanalytic Theories of Personality
7.7Behaviorism and Social Cognitive Theories of Personality
7.8Humanistic Theories of Personality
7.9Trait Theories of Personality
🛋 Unit 8: Clinical Psychology
8.0Unit 8 Overview: Clinical Psychology
8.1Introduction to Psychological Disorders
8.2Psychological Perspectives and Etiology of Disorders
8.3Neurodevelopmental and Schizophrenic Spectrum Disorders
8.4Bipolar, Depressive, Anxiety, and Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders
8.5Trauma- and Stressor Related, Dissociative, and Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders
8.6Feeding and Eating, Substance and Addictive, and Personality Disorders
8.7Introduction to Treatment of Psychological Disorders
8.8Psychological Perspectives and Treatment of Disorders
8.9Treatment of Disorders from the Biological Perspective
👫 Unit 9: Social Psychology
9.0Unit 9 Overview: Social Psychology
9.1Attribution Theory and Person Perception
9.2Attitude Formation and Attitude Change
9.3Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience
9.4Group Influences on Behavior and Mental Processes
9.5Bias, Prejudice, and Discrimination
9.6Altruism and Aggression
🧐 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
✍️ Free Response Questions (FRQ)
⏱️ 3 min read
November 11, 2020
A major perspective not covered in the previous section is biological psychology, which is where medication is utilized. Mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and many other types of disorders may be caused by a mixture of previously listed factors and a chemical imbalance.
The study of drugs 💊 on the mind and on our behavior, or psychopharmacology, is one of the ways biological psychologists treat disorders. Antidepressants, mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, and antianxiety drugs are all examples of biological solutions to psychological problems.
When a drug is first made, researchers have to test how effective it is using an experiment 🧪 The experimental group would receive the new drug and the control group would receive the placebo. Random assignment, random selection, and a double-blind procedure must be used.
As said by the name, antidepressants are used to treat depression, anxiety, OCD, and PTSD. Most antidepressants are SSRIs, or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or SNRIs, which are selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors.
These drugs increase ones serotonin and norepinephrine levels, promoting neurogenesis 🌱 It takes a while to see the effect of these drugs because of neurogenesis, but the best way to treat depression is drugs, therapy, and exercise 🏃, combined.
Image Courtesy of Verywell Mind.
As said by the name again, anti-anxiety drugs are used to treat anxiety disorders. Since anxiety occurs as a result of activity in the central nervous system, anti-anxiety drugs reduce CNS activity.
However, anti-anxiety drugs can become addicting, which creates further issues once the anxiety subsides.
Image Courtesy of Verywell Mind.
Mood stabilizers help those with bipolar disorder. They balance both sides of the disorder: mania and depression.
These drugs help treat people with disorders like schizophrenia by decreasing dopamine levels. However, there is a huge negative effect to taking these drugs. Long-term use of antipsychotic drugs can cause tardive dyskinesia. You could think of this as tremors or twitches; it is basically the involuntary movements of your muscles.
Image Courtesy of Verywell Mind.
Treats/How it works
Depression and anxiety
Increases serotonin or norepinephrine levels
Prozac, Zoloft, Celexa
Can take weeks to notice changes in mood
Depresses central nervous system
Build a tolerance, physical dependence
Decreases dopamine levels
Other than drugs, therapies and other biomedical procedures exist. Here are some you should be familiar with:
This is a type of therapy used with those that are severely depressed. The client would be given an anesthetic and then brief electric currents would be sent to their brain.
Because of the anesthesia, clients don't remember the whole procedure and after a few sessions of this, 80% of the depression fades away.
Well . . . why does this work? It is said that the shocks do what the medicine does: it lowers the activity of the brain and promotes neurogenesis (the formation of new neurons).
This is still used today, but very rarely, and in briefer currents. However, there is a chance of relapse after ECT.
rTMS is usually used for those with ASD (autism spectrum disorder) or depression. It is similar to ECT, but instead of electric currents, magnetic energy is sent to the brain.
These magnetic currents 🧲 either stimulate or suppress activity in the brain, and it is very painless and quick.
Many think it works because the magnetic energy might be activating the brain's left frontal lobe, which is associated with positive emotions and usually shrinks when people have depression.
Deep-brain stimulation isn't the most effective, but it helps with depression and possibly OCD.
Helen Mayberg found an area in the brain that helped activate the frontal lobes and the limbic system. She created a procedure in which she would connect this area of the brain to other areas of the brain to try and treat depression.
Psychosurgery is when a part of the brain is removed to ease or treat a disorder. This is very dangerous and basically never used because of how it could affect the brain.
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