🔎 Unit 1: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.0Unit 1 Overview: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.1Introducing Psychology: The Historical Progression of Psychology
1.2Research Methods in Psychology
1.3The Experimental Method
1.5Statistical Analysis in Psychology
🧠 Unit 2: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.0Unit 2 Overview: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.1Interaction of Heredity and Environment
2.3Overview of the Nervous System and the Neuron
2.7Tools for Examining Brain Structure and Function
2.8The Adaptable Brain: Neural Fluidity
👀 Unit 3: Sensation and Perception
3.0Unit 3 Overview: Sensation and Perception
3.1Principles of Sensation
3.2Principles of Perception
3.5Auditory Sensation and Perception
📚 Unit 4: Learning
4.0Unit 4 Overview: Learning
🤔 Unit 5: Cognitive Psychology
5.0Unit 5 Overview: Cognitive Psychology
5.1Introduction to Memory
5.5Forgetting and Memory Distortion
5.6Biological Bases of Memory
5.7Introduction to Thinking and Problem Solving
5.8Biases and Errors in Thinking
5.9Introduction to Intelligence
5.10Psychometric Principles and Intelligence Testing
👶 Unit 6: Developmental Psychology
6.0Unit 6 Overview: Developmental Psychology
6.1The Lifespan and Physical Development in Childhood
6.2Social Development in Childhood
6.3Cognitive Development in Childhood
6.5Adulthood and Aging
🤪 Unit 7: Motivation, Emotion, & Personality
7.0Unit 7 Overview: Motivation, Emotion, and Personality
7.1Theories of Motivation
7.2Specific Topics in Motivation
7.3Theories of Emotion
7.4Stress and Coping
7.5Introduction to Personality
7.6Psychoanalytic Theories of Personality
7.7Behaviorism and Social Cognitive Theories of Personality
7.8Humanistic Theories of Personality
7.9Trait Theories of Personality
🛋 Unit 8: Clinical Psychology
8.0Unit 8 Overview: Clinical Psychology
8.1Introduction to Psychological Disorders
8.2Psychological Perspectives and Etiology of Disorders
8.3Neurodevelopmental and Schizophrenic Spectrum Disorders
8.4Bipolar, Depressive, Anxiety, and Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders
8.5Trauma- and Stressor Related, Dissociative, and Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders
8.6Feeding and Eating, Substance and Addictive, and Personality Disorders
8.7Introduction to Treatment of Psychological Disorders
8.8Psychological Perspectives and Treatment of Disorders
8.9Treatment of Disorders from the Biological Perspective
👫 Unit 9: Social Psychology
9.0Unit 9 Overview: Social Psychology
9.1Attribution Theory and Person Perception
9.2Attitude Formation and Attitude Change
9.3Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience
9.4Group Influences on Behavior and Mental Processes
9.5Bias, Prejudice, and Discrimination
9.6Altruism and Aggression
🧐 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
✍️ Free Response Questions (FRQ)
⏱️ 4 min read
November 11, 2020
Any substance where a chemical dependency is formed can develop into a substance abuse disorder. The brain has difficulty naturally creating and receiving neurotransmitters due to disruptions caused by substance addiction. The body becomes dependent on substances because of a chemical imbalance in the brain.
The scope of eating disorders is extremely broad, but all eating disorders are characterized by disordered eating patterns. These patterns can be caused by body image issues, an inability to regulate hunger, comorbid conditions, or difficulty with sensory input.
For the AP Psychology exam, the most common eating disorders to know are Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and binge eating conditions. Many other eating disorders exist but are not tested on the exam.
Image Courtesy of Verywell Mind.
Anorexia Nervosa is a somatic condition characterized by body image issues, starvation or restriction of food, unhealthy obsessions and compulsions regarding weight, and malnutrition. Those with anorexia usually maintain a starvation diet even though they are underweight. They unfortunately continue to feel overweight.
Image Courtesy of Verywell Mind.
Another common disorder is Bulimia Nervosa, which is similar to Anorexia Nervosa regarding body image issues, but with different disordered eating patterns. Bulimics have cycles of binge eating and purging in order to lose weight. Weight loss patterns for bulimics tend to widely fluctuate due to the inconsistent nature of food consumption.
After having any meal and binge eating, bulimics force themselves to purge. Because of the fluctuating weight, bulimia is very hard to detect visibly.
Image Courtesy of Verywell mind.
On the opposite end of the spectrum is binge eating, a condition where hunger regulation is low or nonexistent due to issues in the hypothalamus. Those with this disorder binge-eat and then feel guilty or disgusted shortly after.
Eating disorders are usually caused by things people have said. For example, if a mother constantly comments about her daughter's weight, her daughter is very prone to an eating disorder. Families of anorexic victims are usually competitive and protective. Any environment of judgement and not accepting oneself leads to a risk of developing an eating disorder.
Eating disorder are also genetic 🧬 If someone in your family has had an eating disorder, it doesn't mean you will develop it. It just slightly increases risk.
Because of the ideal body image that is shown on social media and through modeling, many have body dissatisfaction. Every culture has their own "ideal body image," but all across the board, women and men diet because they don't feel they match with the ideal body image.
Personality disorders are complex patterns of thoughts and behavior that are detrimental to personal growth, relationships, and many other areas of life. These disorders are difficult to treat due to their inflexible nature from deeply ingrained trauma. Each personality disorder differs vastly, but patterns described before are consistent throughout.
Paranoid Personality Disorder (PPD)
Irrational fear, inability to trust others, often thinks in worst case scenario situations
Schizoid Personality Disorder
Detachment from emotions and relationships, little to no interest in any social interaction
Schizotypal Personality Disorder
Eccentric and/or erratic thought, behavioral, and speech patterns, delusions may be present
Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD)
Lack of empathy, patterns of manipulation for selfish benefits, little to no remorse; exhibiting a lack of conscience for doing something wrong
Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD)
Extreme emotional swings and perceptions of the world, black and white thinking, impulsive behavior
Histrionic Personality Disorder (HPD)
Dramatic and impulsive behaviors, obsessive need to be the center of attention, people-pleasing
Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD)
Grandiose delusions, manipulation, perfectionism, defensive and upset if criticized
Avoidant Personality Disorder (AVPD)
Low self-esteem, avoidance of social interactions, afraid of rejection and criticism
Dependent Personality Disorder (DPD)
Abandonment issues, anxiety when alone, afraid of rejection and criticism
Obsessive-compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD)
Obsessions and compulsions regarding perfectionism, unable to notice any problems present
The three categories for personality disorders include cluster A, cluster B, and cluster C.
Cluster A: Eccentric behaviors—emotionless disengagement
Cluster B: Dramatic and impulsive behaviors—attention-getting
Cluster C: Anxiety—fearing rejection
Image Courtesy of Medium.
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