🔎 Unit 1: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.0Unit 1 Overview: Scientific Foundations of Psychology
1.1Introducing Psychology: The Historical Progression of Psychology
1.2Research Methods in Psychology
1.3The Experimental Method
1.5Statistical Analysis in Psychology
🧠 Unit 2: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.0Unit 2 Overview: Biological Bases of Behavior
2.1Interaction of Heredity and Environment
2.3Overview of the Nervous System and the Neuron
2.7Tools for Examining Brain Structure and Function
2.8The Adaptable Brain: Neural Fluidity
👀 Unit 3: Sensation and Perception
3.0Unit 3 Overview: Sensation and Perception
3.1Principles of Sensation
3.2Principles of Perception
3.5Auditory Sensation and Perception
📚 Unit 4: Learning
4.0Unit 4 Overview: Learning
🤔 Unit 5: Cognitive Psychology
5.0Unit 5 Overview: Cognitive Psychology
5.1Introduction to Memory
5.5Forgetting and Memory Distortion
5.6Biological Bases of Memory
5.7Introduction to Thinking and Problem Solving
5.8Biases and Errors in Thinking
5.9Introduction to Intelligence
5.10Psychometric Principles and Intelligence Testing
👶 Unit 6: Developmental Psychology
6.0Unit 6 Overview: Developmental Psychology
6.1The Lifespan and Physical Development in Childhood
6.2Social Development in Childhood
6.3Cognitive Development in Childhood
6.5Adulthood and Aging
🤪 Unit 7: Motivation, Emotion, & Personality
7.0Unit 7 Overview: Motivation, Emotion, and Personality
7.1Theories of Motivation
7.2Specific Topics in Motivation
7.3Theories of Emotion
7.4Stress and Coping
7.5Introduction to Personality
7.6Psychoanalytic Theories of Personality
7.7Behaviorism and Social Cognitive Theories of Personality
7.8Humanistic Theories of Personality
7.9Trait Theories of Personality
🛋 Unit 8: Clinical Psychology
8.0Unit 8 Overview: Clinical Psychology
8.1Introduction to Psychological Disorders
8.2Psychological Perspectives and Etiology of Disorders
8.3Neurodevelopmental and Schizophrenic Spectrum Disorders
8.4Bipolar, Depressive, Anxiety, and Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders
8.5Trauma- and Stressor Related, Dissociative, and Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders
8.6Feeding and Eating, Substance and Addictive, and Personality Disorders
8.7Introduction to Treatment of Psychological Disorders
8.8Psychological Perspectives and Treatment of Disorders
8.9Treatment of Disorders from the Biological Perspective
👫 Unit 9: Social Psychology
9.0Unit 9 Overview: Social Psychology
9.1Attribution Theory and Person Perception
9.2Attitude Formation and Attitude Change
9.3Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience
9.4Group Influences on Behavior and Mental Processes
9.5Bias, Prejudice, and Discrimination
9.6Altruism and Aggression
🧐 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)
✍️ Free Response Questions (FRQ)
⏱️ 3 min read
November 11, 2020
According to the College Board, "Psychologists use theory to categorize and explain different personalities. These explanations have been influenced by the various branches of psychology 🧠 Some psychologists study what motivates us 🏆and/or our emotional responses to experiences to understand our individual differences. Other psychologists seek to understand personality, including why different personalities exist, how they are developed, and if and how they change.
Originating from the psychodynamic perspective, the study of personality involves consideration of behavior and mental processes and how they interact to produce an individual’s personality. A full explanation of personality also involves incorporating humanistic and social-cognitive perspectives from earlier units ⬅️."
What motivates us to think and act the way we do?
Why do some people respond to stress in a healthier way than others?
Why don't psychologists agree?
This unit seeks to understand the origins of personality, what makes individual personalities different from one another 👪, the different psychological perspectives of personality, and how personality can change abruptly depending on the situation a person is faced with. At the same time, this unit is studying what motivates our behaviors and emotions, the process of emotions, and how stress and health ❤️ of everyday life pressures can affect us.
Personality: an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
Motivation: a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior
Emotion: a response of the whole organism, involving physiological arousal, expressive behavior, and conscious thought.
About 11-15% of the exam is on this unit.
Main contribution is James-Lange theory, which says physiological arousal comes before emotion.
The first theory, which was the common sense theory, told us, “we cry because we are sad.” The conscious awareness came first and the feeling followed. Pioneering psychologist William James felt this was backwards; “we feel sorry because we cry, angry because we strike, afraid because we tremble” Danish Psychologist Carl Lange also proposed the same thing. Thus, it is called the James-Lange theory.
Image Courtesy of Pixorize .
Zoologist who, along with his colleagues, conducted a study on sexual behavior in 1948, which was the first of its kind. Despite the study’s flaws, misleading findings, and lack of a representative sample, his findings are considered as relevant as those found in surveys given today. His study opened the door for more studies into sexual behavior.
His theory suggests that not all needs are equal. He described a hierarchy of needs that predicts what needs have to be fulfilled first and which follow after. By completing this hierarchy 🔺, we can then fulfill our unique potential as a person. He produced this theory by studying healthy people, who he felt achieved their full potential, and looking at all the things that they had in common.
His theory suggests that following physiological arousal, people look to their environment 🌳 to determine the exact emotion they are feeling.
An endocrinologist who suggested that people experience major trauma in three major stages:
|Intrinsic Motivation||Extrinsic Motivation||Richard Lazarus’s appraisal theory||Joseph LeDoux’s theory|
|Optimal Arousal Theory||Yerkes-Dodson Law||Hierarchy of Needs||Glucose|
|Set point||Basal metabolic rate||Sexual response cycle||Sexual Dysfunction|
|Common Sense Theory||James-Lange Theory||Cannon-Bard Theory||Two-factor Theory|
|Polygraph||Facial Feedback Effect||Stress||General Adaptation Syndrome|
|Tend and befriend response||Coronary Heart Disease||Homeostasis||Psychophysiological Illness|
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