✍️ Free Response Questions
AP Chemistry Free Response Questions
⚛️ Unit 1 - Atomic Structure and Properties
1.1Moles and Molar Mass
1.2Mass Spectroscopy of Elements
1.3Elemental Composition of Pure Substances
1.4Composition of Mixtures
1.5Atomic Structure and Electron Configurations
1.6Photoelectron Spectroscopy & Graph Interp.
🤓 Unit 2 - Molecular and Ionic Compound Structures and Properties
2.0Unit 2 Overview: Molecular and Ionic Bonding
2.1Types of Chemical Bonds
2.2Intramolecular Force and Potential Energy
2.3Ionic Bonding and Ionic Solids
2.4Metallic Bonding and Alloys
2.5Lewis Dot Diagrams
2.6Resonance and Formal Charge
🌀 Unit 3 - Intermolecular Forces and Properties
3.0Unit 3 Overview: Intermolecular Forces and Properties
3.2Properties of Solids
3.3Solids, Liquids, and Gases
3.4The Ideal Gas Law
3.5The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases
3.6Deviations from the Ideal Gas Law
3.7Mixtures and Solutions
3.8Representations of Solutions
3.9Separation of Solids/Mixtures
3.10Solubility and Solubility Rules
3.11Spectroscopy and the Electromagnetic Spectrum
3.12Quantum Mechanics and the Photoelectric Effect
🧪 Unit 4 - Chemical Reactions
4.0Unit 4 Overview: Chemical Reactions
4.1Recognizing Chemical Reactions
4.2Net Ionic Equations
4.4Physical vs. Chemical Changes
4.5Stoichiometry & Calculations
4.6Titrations - Intro and Calculations
4.8Intro to Acid-Base Neutralization Reactions
👟 Unit 5 - Kinetics
5.0Unit 5 Overview: Kinetics
5.1Defining Rate of Reaction
5.2Introduction to Rate Laws
5.3Rate and Concentration Change
5.4Writing Rate Laws
5.5Collision Model of Kinetics
5.6Reaction Energy and Graphs w/ Energy
5.7Reaction Mechanisms and Elementary Steps
5.8Writing Rate Laws Using Mechanisms
🔥 Unit 6 - Thermodynamics
6.0 Unit 6 Overview: Thermochemistry and Reaction Thermodynamics
6.1Endothermic Processes vs. Exothermic Processes
6.2Energy Diagrams of Reactions
6.3Kinetic Energy, Heat Transfer, and Thermal Equilibrium
6.4Heat Capacity and Coffee-Cup Calorimetry
6.5Phase Changes and Energy
6.6Introduction to Enthalpy of Reaction
6.7Bond Enthalpy and Bond Dissociation Energy
6.8Enthalpies of Formation
⚖️ Unit 7 - Equilibrium
🍊 Unit 8 - Acids and Bases
8.0Unit 8 Overview: Acids and Bases
8.1Introduction to Acids and Bases
Unit 9 - Applications of Thermodynamics
🤺 AP Chemistry Essentials
🧐 Multiple Choice Questions
AP Chemistry Self-Study and Homeschool
September 18, 2020
Although ionic and covalent bonds are more common, metallic bonding describes a lattice of cations surrounded by a ‘sea’ of valence electrons🌊. The nucleus and core electrons of the metal stay in place, but the valence electrons are very mobile.
Electrons usually belong to a certain atom but in metals, they move so much that they don't belong to one, single atom.
This ‘sea’ of valence electrons contributes to metal properties:
Metals conduct electricity⚡ - because of delocalization of electrons in metals, electrons can move freely. This allows metals to conduct charge or, as we'll see in a future unit, be used in redox reactions.
Metals are malleable and ductile - Metals, because they are less rigid, can be bent and spun into wire🔌.
When comparing properties among the different solids, remember this chart:
|Type of Solid||Form of Unit Particles||Forces Between Particles||Properties||Examples|
|Molecular🧊||Atoms or Molecules||LDFs, dipole-dipole, hydrogen bonds||fairly soft, low melting point, bad conductor||Argon, methane, sucrose, dry ice|
|Covalent-Network💎||Atoms connected in a network of covalent bonds||Covalent bonds||Very hard, very high melting point, bad conductor||diamond, quartz|
|Ionic🧂||Positive and negative ions||Electrostatic attractions||Hard and brittle, high melting point, bad conductor||salts (NaCl)|
|Metallic✨||Atoms||Metallic bonds||varying hardness and melting points, good conductor, malleable, ductile||metals! Cu, Fe, Al|
Table Courtesy of unknown source
Right now, you should only be very familiar with the two bolded rows. The others are covered in unit 3 in more depth!
Metals can also bond with each other and become alloys. Alloys can be formed when two metals are in their liquid form being mixed together. When this mixture cools, the alloy is formed.
There are two types:
Interstitial alloys: Smaller atoms fill the interstitial spaces between larger atoms
An example of an interstitial alloy is steel🍳. Steel is made up of iron and carbon. Carbon is in the interstices of iron and the amount of carbon affects the properties of the sample of steel.
The ratio of carbon to iron significantly changes the properties of the steel.
Substitutional alloys: An atom of one element substitutes an atom of another element of similar size
Brass🎺 is an example of a substitutional alloy. Zinc is substituted for copper.
Image Courtesy of Chemistry LibreTexts
*This question is similar to one discussed on the Advanced Placement YT*
It goes over content reviewed this key topic and the previous key topic.
A student ran an experiment to see if the following solids conduct electricity.
|Solids||Does it conduct electricity?|
(a) Explain the results the student saw.
This student found that a sample of iron conducted electricity since it is a metal. Metals have delocalized valence electrons, usually displayed by the sea of electrons diagram, allowing them to be good conductors of electricity.
The student found that the sample of FeCl2 didn't conduct electricity because it is an ionic solid. Ionic solids have a lattice structure. Therefore, electrons cannot move freely and the sample didn't conduct electricity.
(b) Is there anything that could have been different in this experiment to see the FeCl sample conduct electricity?
Recall: As long as there are mobile valence electrons, the sample will conduct electricity. There are two ways to do that. Either of the following responses are acceptable.
Melt the FeCl2 solid and then test it for conductivity. The liquid FeCl2 would conduct electricity since the ions would be mobile and able to flow.
Dissolve the FeCl2 solid into water. In an aqueous solution, the ions are able to flow and conduct electricity.
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