✍️ Free Response Questions
AP Chemistry Free Response Questions
⚛️ Unit 1 - Atomic Structure and Properties
1.1Moles and Molar Mass
1.2Mass Spectroscopy of Elements
1.3Elemental Composition of Pure Substances
1.4Composition of Mixtures
1.5Atomic Structure and Electron Configurations
1.6Photoelectron Spectroscopy & Graph Interp.
🤓 Unit 2 - Molecular and Ionic Compound Structures and Properties
2.0Unit 2 Overview: Molecular and Ionic Bonding
2.1Types of Chemical Bonds
2.2Intramolecular Force and Potential Energy
2.3Ionic Bonding and Ionic Solids
2.4Metallic Bonding and Alloys
2.5Lewis Dot Diagrams
2.6Resonance and Formal Charge
🌀 Unit 3 - Intermolecular Forces and Properties
3.0Unit 3 Overview: Intermolecular Forces and Properties
3.2Properties of Solids
3.3Solids, Liquids, and Gases
3.4The Ideal Gas Law
3.5The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases
3.6Deviations from the Ideal Gas Law
3.7Mixtures and Solutions
3.8Representations of Solutions
3.9Separation of Solids/Mixtures
3.10Solubility and Solubility Rules
3.11Spectroscopy and the Electromagnetic Spectrum
3.12Quantum Mechanics and the Photoelectric Effect
🧪 Unit 4 - Chemical Reactions
4.0Unit 4 Overview: Chemical Reactions
4.1Recognizing Chemical Reactions
4.2Net Ionic Equations
4.4Physical vs. Chemical Changes
4.5Stoichiometry & Calculations
4.6Titrations - Intro and Calculations
4.8Intro to Acid-Base Neutralization Reactions
👟 Unit 5 - Kinetics
5.0Unit 5 Overview: Kinetics
5.1Defining Rate of Reaction
5.2Introduction to Rate Laws
5.3Rate and Concentration Change
5.4Writing Rate Laws
5.5Collision Model of Kinetics
5.6Reaction Energy and Graphs w/ Energy
5.7Reaction Mechanisms and Elementary Steps
5.8Writing Rate Laws Using Mechanisms
🔥 Unit 6 - Thermodynamics
6.0 Unit 6 Overview: Thermochemistry and Reaction Thermodynamics
6.1Endothermic Processes vs. Exothermic Processes
6.2Energy Diagrams of Reactions
6.3Kinetic Energy, Heat Transfer, and Thermal Equilibrium
6.4Heat Capacity and Coffee-Cup Calorimetry
6.5Phase Changes and Energy
6.6Introduction to Enthalpy of Reaction
6.7Bond Enthalpy and Bond Dissociation Energy
6.8Enthalpies of Formation
⚖️ Unit 7 - Equilibrium
🍊 Unit 8 - Acids and Bases
8.0Unit 8 Overview: Acids and Bases
8.1Introduction to Acids and Bases
Unit 9 - Applications of Thermodynamics
🤺 AP Chemistry Essentials
🧐 Multiple Choice Questions
AP Chemistry Self-Study and Homeschool
⏱️ 3 min read
August 23, 2020
Lewis structures can determine properties such as geometry, bond orders, bond lengths, and dipoles for molecules. The Valence-Shell-Electron-Pair-Repulsion (VSEPR) theory can predict molecular geometry by minimizing electron electron repulsion.
You should definitely memorize the table below for the AP Exam. Once you practice, the questions that involve the VSEPR Theory become free points🥳!
Let's go over what each column means:
Family - think of family as how many groups of atoms or molecules branch off the middle atom (number of x + number of e in the general formula).
General Formula - made up of three parts:
M = middle atom
X = attached atoms
E = lone pairs
Electron Domain Geography - gives you an idea of what the molecule looks like. It shows where the electrons or atoms are in relation to the middle atom, M.
The graph below also includes angle measures that you should be aware of.
Shape - This is the main column that you should memorize and learn to associate with the general formula, electron domain geography, and hybridization.
Hybridization - You only have to memorize the hybridization of family 2, 3, and 4🧠.
Sigma (σ) bonds are covalent bonds where electrons are found shared on the internuclear axis. Hybrid orbitals form σ bonds, and they are stronger than π bonds.
Pi (π) bonds are covalent bonds where orbitals are perpendicular📐 to the internuclear axis. Unhybridized orbitals form π bonds.
You don't really have to know these definitions, but be aware of the following:
A single bond is made up of 1 σ bond.
A double bond is made up of 1 σ bond and 1 π bond.
A triple bond is made up of 1 σ bond and 2 π bonds.
The more pi bonds in a molecule:
The higher the bond energy
The shorter the bond length
Count the number of σ bonds and the number of π bonds in the following two structures:
Image Courtesy of BC Open textbooks
In the molecule on the left, there is 1 triple bond and 2 single bonds. 1 triple bond is made up of 1 σ bond and 2 π bonds, while the single bond is only made up of 1 σ bond. Therefore, in total, there are 3 σ bonds and 2 π bonds in this molecule.
In the molecule on the left, there are 3 double bonds and 9 single bonds. This means this molecule is made up of 12 σ bonds and 3 π bonds.
Hybridization is the idea that atomic orbitals fuse to form newly hybridized orbitals, which in turn, influences molecular geometry and bonding properties. Hybridization is also an expansion of the valence bond theory💥.
There are 5 main hybridizations, 3 of which you'll be tested on: sp3, sp2, sp, sp3d, sp3d2. For these hybridizations, electron orbitals fuse together to fill subshells and go to a lower energy state. It also allowed for things like CH4, since technically the way the electron pairs are organized, 4 sigma bonds would not be possible.
In the above example, carbon's 2p and 2s orbitals fuse into 4 half filled sp3 orbitals that can make 4 sp3-orbital sigma bonds. The same principle applies for the other hybridizations.
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